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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                  TO                     .

Commission file number: 333-31929

DISH DBS Corporation

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Colorado

84-1328967

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

9601 South Meridian Boulevard

Englewood, Colorado

80112

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (303) 723-1000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting interests held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2019 was $0.

As of February 24, 2020, the registrant’s outstanding common stock consisted of 1,015 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share.

The registrant meets the conditions set forth in General Instructions (I)(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and is therefore filing this Annual Report on Form 10-K with the reduced disclosure format.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The following documents are incorporated into this Form 10-K by reference: None

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

i

Item 1.

Business

1

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

3

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

32

Item 2.

Properties

32

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

33

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

33

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

33

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

*

Item 7.

Management’s Narrative Analysis of Results of Operations

33

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

48

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

48

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

48

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

49

Item 9B.

Other Information

49

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

*

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

*

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

*

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

*

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

50

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

51

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

54

Signatures

55

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

F-1

*This item has been omitted pursuant to the reduced disclosure format as set forth in General Instructions (I) (2) (a) and (c) of Form 10-K.

Table of Contents

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Unless otherwise required by the context, in this report, the words “DISH DBS,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to DISH DBS Corporation and its subsidiaries, “DISH Network” refers to DISH Network Corporation, our parent company, and its subsidiaries, including us, and “EchoStar” refers to EchoStar Corporation and its subsidiaries.

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including, in particular, statements about our plans, objectives and strategies, growth opportunities in our industries and businesses, our expectations regarding future results, financial condition, liquidity and capital requirements, our estimates regarding the impact of regulatory developments and legal proceedings, and other trends and projections. Forward-looking statements are not historical facts and may be identified by words such as “future,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “goal,” “seek,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “predict,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “can,” “may,” and similar terms. These forward-looking statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and represent management’s current views and assumptions. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, events or results and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may be beyond our control. Accordingly, actual performance, events or results could differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the following:

Competition and Economic Risks

As the pay-TV industry has matured and bundled offers combining video, broadband and/or wireless services have become more prevalent and competitive, we face intense and increasing competition from providers of video, broadband and/or wireless services, which may require us to further increase subscriber acquisition and retention spending or accept lower subscriber activations and higher subscriber churn.
Changing consumer behavior and competition from digital media companies that provide or facilitate the delivery of video content via the Internet may reduce our subscriber activations and may cause our subscribers to purchase fewer services from us or to cancel our services altogether, resulting in less revenue to us.
Economic weakness and uncertainty may adversely affect our ability to grow or maintain our business.
Our competitors may be able to leverage their relationships with programmers to reduce their programming costs and/or offer exclusive content that will place them at a competitive advantage to us.
Our over-the-top (“OTT”) Sling TV Internet-based services face certain risks, including, among others, significant competition.
If government regulations relating to the Internet change, we may need to alter the manner in which we conduct our Sling TV business, and/or incur greater operating expenses to comply with those regulations.
Changes in how network operators handle and charge for access to data that travels across their networks could adversely impact our business.
We face increasing competition from other distributors of unique programming services such as foreign language, sports programming and original content that may limit our ability to maintain subscribers that desire these unique programming services.

Operational and Service Delivery Risks

If our operational performance and customer satisfaction were to deteriorate, our subscriber activations and our subscriber churn rate may be negatively impacted, which could in turn adversely affect our revenue.
If our subscriber activations decrease, or if our subscriber churn rate, subscriber acquisition costs or retention costs increase, our financial performance will be adversely affected.
Programming expenses are increasing and may adversely affect our future financial condition and results of operations.

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We depend on others to provide the programming that we offer to our subscribers and, if we fail to obtain or lose access to certain programming, our subscriber activations and our subscriber churn rate may be negatively impacted.
We may not be able to obtain necessary retransmission consent agreements at acceptable rates, or at all, from local network stations.
We may be required to make substantial additional investments to maintain competitive programming offerings.
Any failure or inadequacy of our information technology infrastructure and communications systems or those of third parties that we use in our operations, including, without limitation, those caused by cyber-attacks or other malicious activities, could disrupt or harm our business.
We currently depend on DISH Network to provide the vast majority of our satellite transponder capacity and other related services to us. Our business would be adversely affected if DISH Network ceases to provide these services to us and we are unable to obtain suitable replacement services from third parties.
Technology in the pay-TV industry changes rapidly, and our success may depend in part on our timely introduction and implementation of, and effective investment in, new competitive products and services and our failure to do so could cause our products and services to become obsolete and could negatively impact our business.
We rely on a single vendor or a limited number of vendors to provide certain key products or services to us such as information technology support, billing systems and security access devices, and the inability of these key vendors to meet our needs could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We rely on a few suppliers and in some cases a single supplier for many components of our new set-top boxes, and any reduction or interruption in supplies or significant increase in the price of supplies could have a negative impact on our business.
Our programming signals are subject to theft, and we are vulnerable to other forms of fraud that could require us to make significant expenditures to remedy.
We depend on independent third parties to solicit orders for our DISH TV services that represent a meaningful percentage of our total gross new DISH TV subscriber activations.
We have limited satellite capacity and failures or reduced capacity could adversely affect our DISH TV services.
Our owned and leased satellites are subject to construction, launch, operational and environmental risks that could limit our ability to utilize these satellites.
Satellite anomalies or technological failures could adversely affect the value of a particular satellite or result in a complete loss. Some of the satellites DISH Network acquired pursuant to the Master Transaction Agreement have experienced anomalies that may affect their useful lives or prohibit us from operating them to their currently expected capacity, and one or more of the satellites may suffer a technological failure, either of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We generally do not carry commercial in-orbit insurance on any of the satellites that we own and could face significant impairment charges if any of our owned satellites fail.
We may have potential conflicts of interest with EchoStar due to our and DISH Network’s common ownership and management.
We rely on key personnel and the loss of their services may negatively affect our business.

Acquisition and Capital Structure Risks

Our parent, DISH Network, has made substantial investments to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and other related assets. In addition, DISH Network has made substantial non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities related to AWS-3 wireless spectrum licenses.

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Our parent, DISH Network, faces certain risks related to its non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities.
To the extent that our parent, DISH Network, commercializes its wireless spectrum licenses, it will face certain risks entering and competing in the wireless services industry and operating a wireless services business.
We may pursue acquisitions and other strategic transactions to complement or expand our business that may not be successful, and we may lose up to the entire value of our investment in these acquisitions and transactions.
We may need additional capital, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all, to continue investing in our business and to finance acquisitions and other strategic transactions.
We have substantial debt outstanding and may incur additional debt.
Our parent, DISH Network, is controlled by one principal stockholder who is also our Chairman.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

The rulings in the Telemarketing litigation requiring us to pay up to an aggregate amount of $280 million and imposing certain injunctive relief against us, if upheld, would have a material adverse effect on our cash, cash equivalents and marketable investment securities balances and our business operations.
Our business may be materially affected by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Reform Act”). Negative or unexpected tax consequences could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business depends on certain intellectual property rights and on not infringing the intellectual property rights of others.
We are, and may become, party to various lawsuits which, if adversely decided, could have a significant adverse impact on our business, particularly lawsuits regarding intellectual property.
Our ability to distribute video content via the Internet, including our Sling TV services, involves regulatory risk.
Changes in the Cable Act of 1992 (“Cable Act”), and/or the rules of the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) that implement the Cable Act, may limit our ability to access programming from cable-affiliated programmers at nondiscriminatory rates.
The injunction against our retransmission of distant networks, which is currently waived, may be reinstated.
We are subject to significant regulatory oversight, and changes in applicable regulatory requirements, including any adoption or modification of laws or regulations relating to the Internet, could adversely affect our business.
Our DISH TV services depend on FCC licenses that can expire or be revoked or modified and applications for FCC licenses that may not be granted.
We are subject to digital high-definition (“HD”) “carry-one, carry-all” requirements that cause capacity constraints.
Our business, investor confidence in our financial results and DISH Network’s stock price may be adversely affected if our internal controls are not effective.
We may face other risks described from time to time in periodic and current reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

Other factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed under the caption “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, those discussed in “Management’s Narrative Analysis of Results of Operations” herein and those discussed in other documents we file with the SEC. All cautionary statements made or referred to herein should be read as being applicable to all forward-looking statements wherever they appear. Investors should consider the risks and uncertainties described or referred to herein and should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made, and we expressly disclaim any obligation to update these forward-looking statements.

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PART I

Item 1. BUSINESS

Brief Description of our Business

DISH DBS is a holding company and an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of DISH Network, a publicly traded company listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. DISH DBS was formed under Colorado law in January 1996. Our principal executive offices are located at 9601 South Meridian Boulevard, Englewood, Colorado 80112 and our telephone number is (303) 723-1000. We refer readers of this report to DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. Our subsidiaries operate one business segment.

Pay-TV

We offer pay-TV services under the DISH® brand and the Sling® brand (collectively “Pay-TV” services). The DISH branded pay-TV service consists of, among other things, FCC licenses authorizing us to use direct broadcast satellite (“DBS”) and Fixed Satellite Service (“FSS”) spectrum, our owned and leased satellites, receiver systems, broadcast operations, customer service facilities, a leased fiber optic network, in-home service and call center operations, and certain other assets utilized in our operations (“DISH TV”). We also design, develop and distribute receiver systems and provide digital broadcast operations, including satellite uplinking/downlinking, transmission and other services to third-party pay-TV providers. The Sling branded pay-TV services consist of, among other things, multichannel, live-linear streaming OTT Internet-based domestic, international and Latino video programming services (“Sling TV”). As of December 31, 2019, we had 11.986 million Pay-TV subscribers in the United States, including 9.394 million DISH TV subscribers and 2.592 million Sling TV subscribers.

Master Transaction Agreement

On May 19, 2019, DISH Network entered into a Master Transaction Agreement with EchoStar (the “Master Transaction Agreement”) pursuant to which, on September 10, 2019, EchoStar transferred to DISH Network certain assets and liabilities of its EchoStar Satellite Services segment. As a result of the Master Transaction Agreement, certain agreements that we had with EchoStar have been transferred to DISH Network. See Note 1 “Recent Developments” in the Notes to DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for further information on the Master Transaction Agreement.

Business Strategy

Our business strategy is to be the best provider of video services in the United States by providing products with the best technology, outstanding customer service, and great value. We promote our Pay-TV services as providing our subscribers with a better “price-to-value” relationship than those available from other subscription television service providers.

Products with the Best Technology. We offer a wide selection of local and national HD programming and are a technology leader in our industry, offering award-winning DVRs (including our Hopper® whole-home HD DVR), multiple tuner receivers, 1080p and 4K video on demand and external hard drives. We offer several Sling TV services, including Sling Orange (our single-stream Sling domestic service), Sling Blue (our multi-stream Sling domestic service), Sling International, Sling Latino, among others, as well as add-on extras, pay-per-view events and a cloud based DVR service.
Outstanding Customer Service. We strive to provide outstanding customer service by improving the quality of the initial installation of subscriber equipment, improving the reliability of our equipment, better educating our customers about our products and services, and resolving customer problems promptly and effectively when they arise.

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Great Value. We have historically been viewed as the low-cost provider in the pay-TV industry in the United States. However, today with Dish TV, we are focused on our brand promise “Tuned into You” and a message of Service, Value and Technology. For example, for certain new and qualifying customers, we guarantee our pricing for certain programming packages and equipment for a two-year commitment period. We also offer a differentiated customer experience with our award winning Hopper Platform that integrates voice control powered by Google Assistant, access to apps including Netflix, Prime Video and You Tube, and the ability to watch live, recorded and On Demand content anywhere with the Dish Anywhere mobile application. As another example, our Sling Orange service and our Sling Blue service are two of the lowest priced live-linear online streaming services in the industry.

Relationship with EchoStar

On January 1, 2008, DISH Network completed the distribution of its technology and set-top box business and certain infrastructure assets (the “Spin-off”) into a separate publicly-traded company, EchoStar. DISH Network and EchoStar operate as separate publicly-traded companies and neither entity has any ownership interest in the other. However, a substantial majority of the voting power of the shares of both DISH Network and EchoStar is owned beneficially by Charles W. Ergen, our Chairman, and by certain entities established by Mr. Ergen for the benefit of his family. Furthermore, we have an authorized representative arrangement with Hughes, a wholly owned subsidiary of EchoStar, under the MSA which offers satellite broadband Internet services to customers. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and Note 17 in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

Share Exchange. On February 28, 2017, DISH Network and EchoStar and certain of their respective subsidiaries completed the transactions contemplated by the Share Exchange Agreement (the “Share Exchange Agreement”) that was previously entered into on January 31, 2017 (the “Share Exchange”). Pursuant to the Share Exchange Agreement, among other things, EchoStar transferred to us certain assets and liabilities of the EchoStar technologies and EchoStar broadcasting businesses, consisting primarily of the businesses that design, develop and distribute digital set-top boxes, provide satellite uplink services and develop and support streaming video technology, as well as certain investments in joint ventures, spectrum licenses, real estate properties and EchoStar’s ten percent non-voting interest in Sling TV Holding L.L.C. (the “Transferred Businesses”), and in exchange, we transferred to EchoStar the 6,290,499 shares of preferred tracking stock issued by EchoStar (the “EchoStar Tracking Stock”) and 81.128 shares of preferred tracking stock issued by Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation, a subsidiary of EchoStar (the “HSSC Tracking Stock,” and together with the EchoStar Tracking Stock, collectively, the “Tracking Stock”), that tracked the residential retail satellite broadband business of Hughes Network Systems, L.L.C. (“HNS”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hughes.  In connection with the Share Exchange, DISH Network and EchoStar and certain of their respective subsidiaries entered into certain agreements covering, among other things, tax matters, employee matters, intellectual property matters and the provision of transitional services.

As the Share Exchange was a transaction between entities that are under common control, accounting rules require that our Consolidated Financial Statements include the results of the Transferred Businesses for all periods presented, including periods prior to the completion of the Share Exchange. See Note 17 to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K on our Related Party Transactions with EchoStar for further information.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and accordingly file our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and other information with the SEC. As an electronic filer, our public filings are also maintained on the SEC’s Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

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WEBSITE ACCESS

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act also may be accessed free of charge through the website of our parent company, DISH Network, as soon as reasonably practicable after we have electronically filed such material with, or furnished it to, the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.dish.com.

We have adopted a written code of ethics that applies to all of our directors, officers and employees, including our principal executive officer and senior financial officers, in accordance with Section 406 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules of the SEC promulgated thereunder. Our code of ethics is available on the website of our parent company, DISH Network, at http://www.dish.com. In the event that we make changes in, or provide waivers of, the provisions of this code of ethics that the SEC requires us to disclose, we intend to disclose these events on DISH Network’s website.

Item 1A. RISK FACTORS

The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing us. If any of the following events occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Competition and Economic Risks

As the pay-TV industry has matured and bundled offers combining video, broadband and/or wireless services have become more prevalent and competitive, we face intense and increasing competition from providers of video, broadband and/or wireless services, which may require us to further increase subscriber acquisition and retention spending or accept lower subscriber activations and higher subscriber churn.

Our business has historically focused on providing pay-TV services and we have traditionally competed against satellite television providers and cable companies, many of whom have greater financial, marketing and other resources than we do. In recent years, industries have been converging as providers of video, broadband and wireless services compete to deliver the next generation of service offerings. The pay-TV industry has matured and bundled offers combining video, broadband and/or wireless services have become more prevalent and competitive. In some cases, certain competitors have been able to potentially subsidize the price of video services with the price of broadband and/or wireless services. These developments, among others, have contributed to intense and increasing competition, which we expect to continue.

With respect to our DISH TV services, we and our competitors increasingly must seek to attract a greater proportion of new subscribers from each other’s existing subscriber bases rather than from first-time purchasers of pay-TV services. In addition, because other pay-TV providers may be seeking to attract a greater proportion of their new subscribers from our existing subscriber base, we are required to increase retention spending and/or provide greater discounts or credits to acquire and retain subscribers who may spend less on our services. If our Pay-TV average monthly revenue per subscriber (“Pay-TV ARPU”) decreases or does not increase commensurate with increases in programming or other costs, our margins may be reduced and the long-term value of a subscriber would then decrease. In addition, our Sling TV subscribers on average purchase lower priced programming services than DISH TV subscribers. Accordingly, an increase in Sling TV subscribers has a negative impact on our Pay-TV ARPU.

This increasingly competitive environment may require us to increase subscriber acquisition and retention spending or accept lower subscriber activations and higher subscriber churn.  Further, as a result of this increased competitive environment and the maturation of the pay-TV industry, future growth opportunities of our DISH TV business may be limited and our margins may be reduced, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow. Our gross new DISH TV subscriber activations continue to be negatively impacted by stricter customer acquisition policies (including a focus on attaining higher quality subscribers) and increased competitive pressures, including aggressive marketing, more aggressive retention efforts, bundled discount offers combining broadband, video and/or wireless services and other discounted promotional offers. There can be no assurance that our gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, net DISH TV subscriber additions, and DISH TV churn rate will not continue to be negatively impacted and that the pace of such negative impact will not accelerate.

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In addition, MVPDs and other companies such as programmers are offering smaller packages of programming channels directly to customers, at prices lower than our video service package offerings. These offerings could adversely affect demand for our Pay-TV services or cause us to modify our programming packages, which may reduce our margins.

Moreover, mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures and alliances among cable television providers, telecommunications companies, programming providers and others may result in, among other things, greater scale and financial leverage and increase the availability of offerings from providers capable of bundling video, broadband and/or wireless services in competition with our services, and may exacerbate the risks described above. For example, in May 2016, Charter completed its acquisition of Time Warner Cable and Bright House Networks (collectively “New Charter”), which created the second largest cable television provider and third largest MVPD in the United States. This transaction created a duopoly, resulting in two broadband providers, New Charter and Comcast, controlling the geographic areas covering the vast majority of the high-speed broadband homes in the country. In addition, a significant proportion of New Charter’s high-speed broadband subscribers may lack access to alternative high-speed broadband options. Further, New Charter may be able to, among other things, foreclose or degrade our online video offerings at various points in the broadband pipe; impose data caps on consumers who access our online video offerings; and pressure third-party content owners and programmers to withhold online rights from us and raise our and other MVPDs’ third-party programming costs.

As a result of AT&T’s 2015 acquisition of DirecTV, our direct competitor and the largest satellite TV provider in the United States now has increased access to capital, access to AT&T’s nationwide platform for wireless mobile video, and the ability to more seamlessly bundle its video services with AT&T’s broadband Internet access and wireless services. AT&T also has an OTT service, AT&T TV Now, that distributes video directly to consumers over the Internet. The combined company may also be able to, among other things, utilize its increased leverage over third-party content owners and programmers to withhold online rights from us and reduce the price it pays for programming at the expense of other MVPDs, including us; thwart our entry into the wireless market, by, among other things, refusing to enter into data roaming agreements with us; underutilize key orbital spectrum resources that could be more efficiently used by us; foreclose or degrade our online video offerings at various points in the broadband pipe; and impose data caps on consumers who access our online video offerings.

In October 2016, AT&T announced its acquisition of Time Warner (which owns certain Turner, HBO and Cinemax channels), which was completed in June 2018. With the completion of this transaction, the risks discussed above posed by the AT&T and DirecTV merger will be further exacerbated, as the addition of Time Warner’s media holdings, which include content, such as HBO, TBS, TNT, CNN, and movies, would, among other things, provide the combined company increased scale and leverage in the converging video, mobile, and broadband industries and may make it more difficult for us to obtain access to Time Warner’s programming networks on nondiscriminatory and fair terms, or at all.

For example, in October 2018, AT&T removed its HBO and Cinemax channels from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup, as we and AT&T have been unable to negotiate the terms and conditions of a new programming carriage contract. Furthermore, AT&T offers its programming, including its HBO and Cinemax channels, directly to consumers over the Internet and provides HBO for free to its subscribers under certain offers. In addition, AT&T’s current practice of offering wireless subscribers access to owned video content over the Internet without counting against a subscriber’s monthly data caps (“zero rating”) may give an unfair advantage to AT&T’s own video content, which currently includes, among others, DirecTV services, including “AT&T TV Now,” and AT&T’s “Watch TV” on mobile devices.

In July 2019, Fox Regional Sports Networks (“Fox RSNs”) also removed certain of its channels from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup. In August 2019, Sinclair Broadcast Group acquired the Fox RSNs. There can be no assurance that channel removals, such as the removal of the channels discussed above or others, will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition or otherwise disrupt our business. 

In September 2019, Nexstar Media Group (“Nexstar”) completed its acquisition of Tribune Media Company (“Tribune”). The combined company (“New Nexstar”) is now the nation’s largest broadcast conglomerate. New Nexstar may be able to use its scale to increase the leverage that it holds in retransmission consent negotiations which could, among other things, raise our programming costs and/or cause us to modify our programming packages as a result of programming interruptions.

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In December 2019, Viacom Inc. (“Viacom”) (which owns certain Nickelodeon, MTV and Comedy Central channels) and CBS Corporation completed their merger to create ViacomCBS Inc. (“ViacomCBS”).  ViacomCBS may be able to use its scale to increase the leverage that it holds in programming network and retransmission consent negotiations which could, among other things, raise our programming costs and/or cause us to modify our programming packages as a result of programming interruptions.

As the pay-TV industry is mature, our strategy has included an emphasis on acquiring and retaining higher quality subscribers, even if it means that we will acquire and retain fewer overall subscribers. We evaluate the quality of subscribers based upon a number of factors, including, among others, profitability. Our DISH TV subscriber base has been declining due to, among other things, this strategy and the factors described above. There can be no assurance that our DISH TV subscriber base will not continue to decline. In the event that our DISH TV subscriber base continues to decline, it could have a material adverse long-term effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.

Changing consumer behavior and competition from digital media companies that provide or facilitate the delivery of video content via the Internet may reduce our subscriber activations and may cause our subscribers to purchase fewer services from us or to cancel our services altogether, resulting in less revenue to us.

Our business has historically focused on providing pay-TV services, including our DISH TV and Sling TV services. We face competition from providers of video content distributed over the Internet including services with live-linear television programming, as well as single programmer offerings and offerings of large libraries of on-demand content, including in certain cases original content. These providers include, among others, Netflix, Hulu, Apple, Amazon, Alphabet, Disney, Verizon, AT&T, ViacomCBS, STARZ, Fubo and Philo.  Many of these companies have larger customer bases, stronger brand recognition and greater financial, marketing and other resources than we do. In addition, traditional providers of video entertainment, including broadcasters, cable channels and MVPDs, are increasing their Internet-based video offerings. Some of these services charge nominal or no fees for access to their content, which could adversely affect demand for our Pay-TV services. Moreover, new technologies have been, and will likely continue to be, developed that further increase the number of competitors we face with respect to video services, including competition from piracy-based video offerings.

These products and services are also driving rapid changes in consumer behavior as consumers seek more control over when, where and how they consume content and access communications services. In particular, through technological advancements and with the large increase in the number of consumers with broadband service, a significant amount of video content has become available through online content providers for users to stream and view on their personal computers, televisions, phones, tablets, videogame consoles, and other devices, some without charging a fee to access the content. Similarly, while our customers can use their traditional video subscription to access mobile programming, an increasing number of customers are also using mobile devices as the sole means of viewing video, and an increasing number of non-traditional video providers are developing content and technologies to satisfy that demand. These technological advancements, changes in consumer behavior, and the increasing number of choices available to consumers with regard to the means by which consumers obtain video content may cause DISH TV subscribers to disconnect our services (“cord cutting”), downgrade to smaller, less expensive programming packages (“cord shaving”) or elect to purchase through online content providers a certain portion of the services that they would have historically purchased from us, such as pay per view movies, resulting in less revenue to us. There can be no assurance that our DISH TV services will be able to compete with these other providers of digital media. Therefore, these technological advancements and changes in consumer behavior could reduce our gross new DISH TV subscriber activations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition or otherwise disrupt our business.

Our failure to effectively anticipate or adapt to competition or changes in consumer behavior, including with respect to younger consumers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition or otherwise disrupt our business.

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Economic weakness and uncertainty may adversely affect our ability to grow or maintain our business.

A substantial majority of our revenue comes from residential customers whose spending patterns may be affected by economic weakness and uncertainty. Our ability to grow or maintain our business may be adversely affected by economic weakness and uncertainty and other factors that may adversely affect the pay-TV industry. In particular, economic weakness and uncertainty could result in the following:

Fewer subscriber activations and increased subscriber churn rate. We could face fewer subscriber activations and increased subscriber churn rate due to, among other things: (i) certain economic factors that impact consumers, including, among others, rising interest rates, a potential downturn in the housing market in the United States (including a decline in housing starts) and higher unemployment, which could lead to a lack of consumer confidence and lower discretionary spending; (ii) increased price competition for our products and services; and (iii) the potential loss of independent third-party retailers, who generate a meaningful percentage of our gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, because many of them are small businesses that are more susceptible to the negative effects of economic weakness. In particular, our DISH TV churn rate may increase with respect to subscribers who purchase our lower tier programming packages and who may be more sensitive to economic weakness, including, among others, our pay-in-advance subscribers.

Lower Pay-TV ARPU. Our subscribers may disconnect our services and a growing share of pay-TV customers are cord shaving to downgrade to smaller, less expensive programming packages or electing to purchase through online content providers a certain portion of the services that they would have historically purchased from us, such as pay per view movies. Cord cutting and/or cord shaving by our subscribers could negatively impact our Pay-TV ARPU. In addition, Sling TV subscribers on average purchase lower priced programming services than DISH TV subscribers, and therefore, as Sling TV subscribers increase, it will have a negative impact on Pay-TV ARPU.

Higher subscriber acquisition and retention costs. Our profits may be adversely affected by increased subscriber acquisition and retention costs necessary to attract and retain subscribers during a period of economic weakness.

Our competitors may be able to leverage their relationships with programmers to reduce their programming costs and/or offer exclusive content that will place them at a competitive advantage to us.

The cost of programming represents the largest percentage of our overall costs. Certain of our competitors own directly or are affiliated with companies that own programming content that may enable them to obtain lower programming costs or offer exclusive programming that may be attractive to prospective subscribers. Unlike our larger cable and satellite competitors, some of which also provide IPTV services, we have not made significant investments in programming providers. For example, in January 2011, the FCC and the Department of Justice approved a transaction between Comcast and General Electric pursuant to which they joined their programming properties, including NBC, Bravo and many others that are available in the majority of our programming packages, in a venture, NBCUniversal, controlled by Comcast. In March 2013, Comcast completed the acquisition of substantially all of General Electric’s remaining interest in NBCUniversal. This transaction may affect us adversely by, among other things, making it more difficult for us to obtain access to NBCUniversal’s programming networks on nondiscriminatory and fair terms, or at all. The FCC conditioned its approval on, among other things, Comcast complying with the terms of the FCC’s order on network neutrality, even if that order is vacated by judicial or legislative action, and Comcast licensing its affiliated content to us, other traditional pay-TV providers and certain providers of video services over the Internet on fair and nondiscriminatory terms and conditions, including, among others, price. However, in January 2018, the prohibition on exclusivity expired, and we can no longer rely on these protections.

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In October 2016, AT&T announced its acquisition of Time Warner (which owns certain Turner, HBO and Cinemax channels), which was completed in June 2018. This transaction joined DirecTV, which was acquired by AT&T in 2015, with Time Warner’s media holdings, which include content such as HBO, TBS, TNT, CNN, and movies. This transaction may affect us adversely by, among other things, making it more difficult for us to obtain access to Time Warner programming networks on nondiscriminatory and fair terms, or at all. For example, in October 2018, AT&T removed its HBO and Cinemax channels from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup, as we and AT&T have been unable to negotiate the terms and conditions of a new programming carriage contract. Furthermore, AT&T offers its programming, including its HBO and Cinemax channels, directly to consumers over the Internet and provides HBO for free to its subscribers under certain offers.

Our OTT Sling TV Internet-based services face certain risks, including, among others, significant competition.

Our Sling TV services face a number of risks, including, among others, the following, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition or otherwise disrupt our business:

We face increasingly robust competition from providers of video content distributed over the Internet including services with live-linear television programming, as well as single programmer offerings and offerings of large libraries of on-demand content, including in certain cases original content.  These providers include, among others, Netflix, Hulu, Apple, Amazon, Alphabet, Disney, Verizon, AT&T, ViacomCBS, STARZ, Fubo and Philo.  Many of these companies have larger customer bases, stronger brand recognition and greater financial, marketing and other resources. Some of these services charge nominal or no fees for access to their content.  For example, AT&T offers its programming, including its HBO and Cinemax channels, directly to consumers over the Internet and provides HBO for free to its subscribers under certain offers. In addition, some services, such as Disney+ and Netflix, provide content for free to subscribers of certain wireless services. We also face competition from piracy based video offerings;

We offer a limited amount of programming content, and there can be no assurances that we will be able to maintain or increase the amount or type of programming content that we may offer to keep pace with, or to differentiate our Sling TV services from, other providers of online video content;

We rely on streaming-capable devices to deliver our Sling TV services, and if we are not successful in maintaining existing, and creating new, relationships, or if we encounter technological, content licensing or other impediments to our streaming content, we may not be able to grow and maintain our Sling TV services, we may incur additional expense or our business could otherwise be adversely impacted;

We may incur significant expenses to market our Sling TV services and build brand awareness, which could have a negative impact on the profitability of our Sling TV services;

We may not be able to timely scale our technology, systems and operational practices related to our Sling TV services to effectively and reliably handle growth in subscribers and features related to our services; and

The adoption or modification of laws and regulations relating to the Internet could limit or otherwise adversely affect the manner in which we conduct our Sling TV services and could cause us to incur additional expenses or alter our business model.

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If government regulations relating to the Internet change, we may need to alter the manner in which we conduct our Sling TV business, and/or incur greater operating expenses to comply with those regulations.

The adoption or modification of laws or regulations relating to the Internet could limit or otherwise adversely affect the manner in which we currently conduct our Sling TV business. Changes in laws or regulations that adversely affect the growth, popularity or use of the Internet, including Open Internet rules, could decrease the demand for our Sling TV services and increase our cost of providing our Sling TV services. Given the lack of laws in the United States to prevent network operators from discriminating against the legal traffic that crosses their networks, coupled with potentially significant political and economic power of local network operators, we could experience discriminatory or anti-competitive practices that could impede our growth, cause us to incur additional expense or otherwise negatively affect our business.

We cannot predict with any certainty the impact to our Sling TV business that may result from changes in laws or regulations that adversely affect the growth, popularity or use of the Internet, including Open Internet rules.

Changes in how network operators handle and charge for access to data that travels across their networks could adversely impact our business.

We rely upon the ability of consumers to access our Sling TV services through the Internet. If network operators block, restrict or otherwise impair access to our Sling TV services over their networks, our Sling TV business could be negatively affected. To the extent that network operators implement usage based pricing, including meaningful bandwidth caps, or otherwise try to monetize access to their networks by data providers, we could incur greater operating expenses and our Sling TV subscriber count could be negatively impacted. Furthermore, to the extent network operators create tiers of Internet access service and either charge us for or prohibit us from being available through these tiers, our Sling TV business could be negatively impacted.

In addition, many network operators that provide consumers with broadband service also provide these consumers with video programming, and these network operators may have an incentive to use their network infrastructure in a manner adverse to our continued growth and success. For example, as a result of AT&T’s acquisition of DirecTV and the completion of the New Charter merger, these risks may be exacerbated to the extent these and other network operators are able to provide preferential treatment to their data. Furthermore, AT&T’s current zero rating practice may give an unfair advantage to AT&T’s own video services, which currently include, among others, DirecTV services, including “AT&T TV Now” and AT&T’s “Watch TV.”

We cannot predict with any certainty the impact to our Sling TV business that may result from changes in how network operators handle and charge for access to data that travels across their networks.

We face increasing competition from other distributors of unique programming services such as foreign language, sports programming and original content that may limit our ability to maintain subscribers that desire these unique programming services.

We face increasing competition from other distributors of unique programming services such as foreign language, sports programming and original content including programming distributed over the Internet. There can be no assurance that we will maintain subscribers that desire these unique programming services. For example, the increasing availability of foreign language programming from our competitors, which in certain cases has resulted from our inability to renew programming agreements on an exclusive basis or at all, as well as competition from piracy-based video offerings, could contribute to an increase in our subscriber churn rate. Our agreements with distributors of foreign language programming have varying expiration dates, and some agreements are on a month-to-month basis. There can be no assurance that we will be able to grow or maintain subscribers that desire these unique programming services such as foreign language and sports programming.

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Operational and Service Delivery Risks

If our operational performance and customer satisfaction were to deteriorate, our subscriber activations and our subscriber churn rate may be negatively impacted, which could in turn adversely affect our revenue.

If our operational performance and customer satisfaction were to deteriorate, we may experience a decrease in subscriber activations and an increase in our subscriber churn rate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. To improve our operational performance, we continue to make investments in staffing, training, information systems, and other initiatives, primarily in our call center and in-home service operations. These investments are intended to help combat inefficiencies introduced by the increasing complexity of our business, improve customer satisfaction, reduce subscriber churn, increase productivity, and allow us to scale better over the long run. We cannot, however, be certain that our spending will ultimately be successful in improving our operational performance, and if unsuccessful, we may have to incur higher costs to improve our operational performance. While we believe that such costs will be outweighed by longer-term benefits, there can be no assurance when or if we will realize these benefits at all. If we are unable to combat the deterioration of our operational performance, our future subscriber activations and existing subscriber churn rate may be negatively impacted, which could in turn adversely affect our revenue growth and results of operations.

If our subscriber activations decrease, or if our subscriber churn rate, subscriber acquisition costs or retention costs increase, our financial performance will be adversely affected.

We may incur increased costs to acquire new subscribers and retain existing subscribers. Our gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, net DISH TV subscriber additions, and DISH TV churn rate continue to be negatively impacted by stricter customer acquisition and retention policies for our DISH TV subscribers, including an emphasis on acquiring and retaining higher quality subscribers. In addition, our subscriber acquisition costs could increase as a result of increased spending for advertising and, with respect to our DISH TV services, the installation of more DVR receivers, which are generally more expensive than other receivers. Retention costs with respect to our DISH TV services may be driven higher by increased upgrades of existing subscribers’ equipment to HD and DVR receivers. Although we expect to continue to incur expenses, such as providing retention credits and other subscriber acquisition and retention expenses, to attract and retain subscribers, there can be no assurance that our efforts will generate new subscribers or result in a lower churn rate. Additionally, certain of our promotions, including, among others, pay-in-advance, continue to allow consumers with relatively lower credit scores to become subscribers. These subscribers typically churn at a higher rate.

Our subscriber acquisition costs and our subscriber retention costs can vary significantly from period to period and can cause material variability to our net income (loss) and free cash flow. Any material increase in subscriber acquisition or retention costs from current levels could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Programming expenses are increasing and may adversely affect our future financial condition and results of operations.

Our programming costs currently represent the largest component of our total expense and we expect these costs to continue to increase on a per subscriber basis. The pay-TV industry has continued to experience an increase in the cost of programming, especially local broadcast channels and sports programming. In addition, certain programming costs are rising at a much faster rate than wages or inflation. These factors may be exacerbated by the increasing trend of consolidation in the media industry, which may further increase our programming expenses. Our ability to compete successfully will depend, among other things, on our ability to continue to obtain desirable programming and deliver it to our subscribers at competitive prices.

When offering new programming, or upon expiration of existing contracts, programming suppliers have historically attempted to increase the rates that they charge us for programming. We expect this practice to continue, which, if successful, would increase our programming costs. In addition, our programming expenses may also increase as we add programming to our video services or distribute existing programming to our customers through additional delivery services, such as Sling TV. As a result, our margins may face further pressure if we are unable to renew our long-term programming contracts on acceptable pricing and other economic terms. Alternatively, to attempt to mitigate the effect of price increases or for other reasons, we may elect not to carry or may be unable to carry certain channels, which could adversely affect our subscriber growth or result in higher churn.

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In addition, increases in programming costs cause us to increase the rates that we charge our Pay-TV subscribers, which could in turn cause our existing Pay-TV subscribers to disconnect our service or cause potential new Pay-TV subscribers to choose not to subscribe to our service. Therefore, we may be unable to pass increased programming costs on to our customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on others to provide the programming that we offer to our subscribers and, if we fail to obtain or lose access to certain programming, our subscriber activations and our subscriber churn rate may be negatively impacted.

We depend on third parties to provide us with programming services. Our programming agreements have remaining terms ranging from less than one to up to several years and contain various renewal, expiration and/or termination provisions. We may not be able to renew these agreements on acceptable terms or at all, and these agreements may be terminated prior to expiration of their original term. In recent years, negotiations over programming carriage contracts generally remain contentious, and certain programmers have, in the past, limited our access to their programming in connection with those negotiations and the scheduled expiration of their programming carriage contracts with us. As national and local programming interruptions and threatened programming interruptions have become more frequent in recent years, our net Pay-TV subscriber additions, gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, and DISH TV churn rate have been negatively impacted as a result of programming interruptions and threatened programming interruptions in connection with the scheduled expiration of programming carriage contracts with content providers. We cannot predict with any certainty the impact to our net Pay-TV subscriber additions, gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, and DISH TV churn rate resulting from programming interruptions or threatened programming interruptions that may occur in the future. As a result, we may at times suffer from periods of lower net Pay-TV subscriber additions or higher net Pay-TV subscriber losses.

We typically have a few programming contracts with major content providers up for renewal each year and if we are unable to renew any of these agreements or the other parties terminate the agreements, there can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain substitute programming, or that such substitute programming would be comparable in quality or cost to our existing programming. In addition, failure to obtain access to certain programming or loss of access to programming, particularly programming provided by major content providers and/or programming popular with our subscribers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, including, among other things, our net Pay-TV subscriber additions, gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, and DISH TV churn rate.

We may not be able to obtain necessary retransmission consent agreements at acceptable rates, or at all, from local network stations.

The Copyright Act generally gives satellite companies a statutory copyright license to retransmit local broadcast channels by satellite back into the market from which they originated, subject to obtaining the retransmission consent of local network stations that do not elect “must carry” status, as required by the Communications Act. If we fail to reach retransmission consent agreements with such broadcasters, we cannot carry their signals. This could have an adverse effect on our strategy to compete with cable and other satellite companies that provide local signals. While we have been able to reach retransmission consent agreements with most of these local network stations, from time to time there are stations with which we have not been able to reach an agreement. For example, currently certain local network stations, including, among others, Mission Broadcasting, Inc., Marshall Broadcasting Group and Northwest Broadcast Stations have removed their channels from our DISH TV lineup, as we have been unable to negotiate the terms and conditions of a new programming carriage contract. We cannot be sure that we will secure these agreements or that we will secure new agreements on acceptable terms, or at all, upon the expiration of our current retransmission consent agreements, some of which are short-term. In recent years, national broadcasters have used their ownership of certain local broadcast stations to require us to carry additional cable programming in exchange for retransmission consent of their local broadcast stations. These requirements may place constraints on available capacity on our satellites for other programming. Furthermore, the rates we are charged for retransmitting local channels have been increasing substantially and may exceed our ability to increase our prices to our customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may be required to make substantial additional investments to maintain competitive programming offerings.

We believe that the availability and extent of programming and other value-added services such as access to video via mobile devices continue to be significant factors in consumers’ choice among pay-TV providers. Other pay-TV providers may have more successfully marketed and promoted their programming packages and value-added services and may also be better equipped and have greater resources to increase their programming offerings and value-added services to respond to increasing consumer demand. We may be required to make substantial additional investments in infrastructure to respond to competitive pressure to deliver enhanced programming, and other value-added services, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively with offerings from other pay-TV providers.

Any failure or inadequacy of our information technology infrastructure and communications systems or those of third parties that we use in our operations, including, without limitation, those caused by cyber-attacks or other malicious activities, could disrupt or harm our business.

The capacity, reliability and security of our information technology hardware and software infrastructure (including our billing systems) and communications systems, or those of third parties that we use in our operations, are important to the operation of our current business, which would suffer in the event of system failures or cyber-attacks. Likewise, our ability to expand and update our information technology infrastructure in response to our growth and changing needs is important to the continued implementation of our new service offering initiatives. Our inability to expand or upgrade our technology infrastructure could have adverse consequences, which could include, among other things, the delayed implementation of new service offerings, service or billing interruptions, and the diversion of development resources. We rely on third parties for developing key components of our information technology and communications systems and ongoing service. Some of our key systems and operations, including those supplied by third-party providers, are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. Interruption and/or failure of any of these systems could disrupt our operations, interrupt our services, result in significant financial expenditures and damage our reputation, thus adversely impacting our ability to provide our services, retain our current subscribers and attract new subscribers.

In addition, although we take protective measures designed to secure our information technology systems and endeavor to modify such protective measures as circumstances warrant, our information technology hardware and software infrastructure and communications systems, or those of third parties that we use in our operations, may be vulnerable to a variety of interruptions, including, without limitation, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, telecommunications failures, cyber-attacks and other malicious activities such as unauthorized access, physical or electronic break-ins, misuse, computer viruses or other malicious code, computer denial of service attacks and other events that could disrupt or harm our business. These protective measures may not be sufficient for all eventualities and may themselves be vulnerable to hacking, malfeasance, system error or other irregularities. For example, certain parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees or customers into disclosing usernames, passwords or other sensitive information, which may in turn be used to access our information technology systems.

In addition, third-party providers of some of our key systems may also experience interruptions to their information technology hardware and software infrastructure and communications systems that could adversely impact us and over which we may have limited or no control. We may obtain certain confidential, proprietary and personal information about our customers, personnel and vendors, and may provide this information to third parties in connection with our business. If one or more of such interruptions or failures occur to us or our third-party providers, it potentially could jeopardize such information and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our or our third-party providers’ information technology hardware and software infrastructure and communications systems, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations, which could result in lawsuits, government claims, investigations or proceedings, significant losses or reputational damage. Due to the fast-moving pace of technology, it may be difficult to detect, contain and remediate every such event. We may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures, and we may be subject to financial losses. Furthermore, the amount and scope of insurance we maintain may not cover all expenses related to such activities or all types of claims that may arise.

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As a result of the increasing awareness concerning the importance of safeguarding personal information, the potential misuse of such information and legislation that has been adopted or is being considered regarding the protection, privacy and security of personal information, the potential liability associated with information-related risks is increasing, particularly for businesses like ours that handle personal customer data. The occurrence of any such network or information system related events or security breaches could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. Significant incidents could result in a disruption of our operations, customer dissatisfaction, damage to our reputation or a loss of customers and revenues.

We currently depend on DISH Network to provide the vast majority of our satellite transponder capacity and other related services to us. Our business would be adversely affected if DISH Network ceases to provide these services to us and we are unable to obtain suitable replacement services from third parties.

We lease the vast majority of our satellite transponder capacity from DISH Network and DISH Network is a key supplier of other related services to us. Satellite transponder leasing costs may increase beyond our current expectations. Our inability to obtain satellite transponder capacity and other related services from third parties could adversely affect our subscriber activations and subscriber churn rate and cause related revenue to decline. See Note 17 in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our Related Party Transactions with DISH Network.

Technology in the pay-TV industry changes rapidly, and our success may depend in part on our timely introduction and implementation of, and effective investment in, new competitive products and services, and our failure to do so could cause our products and services to become obsolete and could negatively impact our business.

Technology in the pay-TV industry changes rapidly as new technologies are developed, which could cause our products and services to become obsolete. We and our suppliers may not be able to keep pace with technological developments. Our operating results are dependent to a significant extent upon our ability to continue to introduce new products and services, to upgrade existing products and services on a timely basis, and to reduce costs of our existing products and services. We may not be able to successfully identify new product or service opportunities or develop and market these opportunities in a timely or cost-effective manner. The research and development of new, technologically advanced products is a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation and investment. The success of new product and service development depends on many factors, including among others, the following:

difficulties and delays in the development, production, timely completion, testing and marketing of products and services;
the cost of the products and services;
proper identification of customer need and customer acceptance of products and services;
the development of, approval of and compliance with industry standards;
the amount of resources we must devote to the development of new technologies; and
the ability to differentiate our products and services and compete with other companies in the same markets.

If the new technologies on which we focus our research and development investments fail to achieve acceptance in the marketplace, our competitive position could be negatively impacted, causing a reduction in our revenues and earnings. For example, our competitors could use proprietary technologies that are perceived by the market as being superior. Further, after we have incurred substantial costs, one or more of the products or services under our development, or under development by one or more of our strategic partners, could become obsolete prior to it being widely adopted.

In addition, our competitive position depends in part on our ability to offer new DISH TV subscribers and upgrade existing subscribers receivers with DVR and streaming capabilities and by otherwise making additional infrastructure investments, such as those related to our information technology and call centers. We may also be at a competitive disadvantage in developing and introducing complex new products and services for our DISH TV services because of the substantial costs we may incur in making these products or services available across our installed base of subscribers. We may not be able to pass on to our subscribers the entire cost of these upgrades and infrastructure investments.

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New technologies could also create new competitors for us. For instance, we face increasing consumer demand for the delivery of digital video services via the Internet. We expect to continue to face increased competition from companies who use the Internet to deliver digital video services as the speed and quality of broadband and wireless networks continues to improve.

Technological innovation is important to our success and depends, to a significant degree, on the work of technically skilled employees. If we are unable to attract and retain appropriately technically skilled employees, our competitive position could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, delays in the delivery of components or other unforeseen problems associated with our technology may occur that could materially and adversely affect our ability to generate revenue, offer new products and services and remain competitive.

If our products and services, including, without limitation, our DISH TV and Sling TV products and services, are not competitive, our business could suffer and our financial performance could be negatively impacted. Our products and services may also experience quality problems, including outages and service slowdowns, from time to time. If the quality of our products and services do not meet our customers’ expectations, then our business, and ultimately our reputation, could be negatively impacted.

We rely on a single vendor or a limited number of vendors to provide certain key products or services to us such as information technology support, billing systems, and security access devices, and the inability of these key vendors to meet our needs could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Historically, we have contracted with and rely on a single vendor or a limited number of vendors to provide certain key products or services to us such as information technology support, billing systems, and security access devices. If these vendors are unable to meet our needs because they fail to perform adequately, are no longer in business, are experiencing shortages or discontinue a certain product or service we need, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. While alternative sources for these products and services exist, we may not be able to develop these alternative sources quickly and cost-effectively, which could materially impair our ability to timely deliver our products to our subscribers or operate our business. Furthermore, our vendors may request changes in pricing, payment terms or other contractual obligations between the parties, which could cause us to make substantial additional investments.

We rely on a few suppliers and in some cases a single supplier for many components of our new set-top boxes, and any reduction or interruption in supplies or significant increase in the price of supplies could have a negative impact on our business.

We rely on a few suppliers and in some cases a single supplier, for many components of our new set-top boxes that we provide to subscribers in order to deliver our digital television services. Our ability to meet customer demand depends, in part, on our ability to obtain timely and adequate delivery of quality materials, parts and components from suppliers. In the event of an interruption of supply or a significant price increase from these suppliers, we may not be able to diversify sources of supply in a timely manner, which could have a negative impact on our business. Further, due to increased demand for products, electronic manufacturers may experience shortages for certain components, from time to time. Additionally, supply of and/or costs of raw materials may be negatively impacted by trade protection policies, such as tariffs and or/escalating trade tensions, particularly with countries in Asia. We have experienced in the past and may continue to experience shortages driven by raw material availability, manufacturing capacity, labor shortages, industry allocations, natural disasters, logistical delays, health epidemics and significant changes in the financial or business conditions of its suppliers that negatively impact our operations. For example, the recent COVID-19 outbreak has prompted closures of certain travel and business in various  regions of the world. It is unknown whether and how global supply chains may be affected if these closures persist for an extended period of time. Any such delays or constraints could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, including, among other things, our subscriber activations.

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Our programming signals are subject to theft, and we are vulnerable to other forms of fraud that could require us to make significant expenditures to remedy.

Increases in theft of our signal or our competitors’ signals could, in addition to reducing subscriber activations, also cause our subscriber churn rate to increase. For our DISH TV services, in order to combat signal theft and improve the security of our broadcast system, we use microchips embedded in credit card sized access cards, called “smart cards,” or security chips in our DBS receiver systems to control access to authorized programming content (“Security Access Devices”). Furthermore, for our Sling TV services, we encrypt programming content and use digital rights management software to, among other things, prevent unauthorized access to our programming content.

Our signal encryption has been compromised in the past and may be compromised in the future even though we continue to respond with significant investment in security measures, such as Security Access Device replacement programs and updates in security software, that are intended to make signal theft more difficult. It has been our prior experience that security measures may only be effective for short periods of time or not at all and that we remain susceptible to additional signal theft. We expect that future replacements of these Security Access Devices may be necessary to keep our system secure. We cannot ensure that we will be successful in reducing or controlling theft of our programming content and we may incur additional costs in the future if our system’s security is compromised.

We are also vulnerable to other forms of fraud. While we are addressing certain fraud through a number of actions, including terminating independent third-party retailers that we believe violated our business rules, there can be no assurance that we will not continue to experience fraud, which could impact our subscriber activations and subscriber churn rate. Economic weakness may create greater incentive for signal theft, piracy and other forms of fraud, which could lead to higher subscriber churn rate and reduced revenue.

We depend on independent third parties to solicit orders for our DISH TV services that represent a meaningful percentage of our total gross new DISH TV subscriber activations.

While we offer products and services through direct sales channels, a meaningful percentage of our total gross new DISH TV subscriber activations are generated through independent third parties such as small satellite retailers, direct marketing groups, local and regional consumer electronics stores, nationwide retailers, and telecommunications companies. Most of our independent third-party retailers are not exclusive to us and some of our independent third-party retailers may favor our competitors’ products and services over ours based on the relative financial arrangements associated with marketing our products and services and those of our competitors. Furthermore, most of these independent third-party retailers are significantly smaller than we are and may be more susceptible to economic weaknesses that make it more difficult for them to operate profitably. Because our independent third-party retailers receive most of their incentive value at activation and not over an extended period of time, our interests may not always be aligned with our independent third-party retailers. It may be difficult to better align our interests with our independent third-party retailers because of their capital and liquidity constraints. Loss of these relationships could have an adverse effect on our subscriber base and certain of our other key operating metrics because we may not be able to develop comparable alternative distribution channels.

We have limited satellite capacity and failures or reduced capacity could adversely affect our DISH TV services.

Operation of our DISH TV services requires that we have adequate satellite transmission capacity for the programming we offer. While we generally have had in-orbit satellite capacity sufficient to transmit our existing channels and some backup capacity to recover the transmission of certain critical programming, our backup capacity is limited.

Our ability to earn revenue from our DISH TV services depends on the usefulness of our owned and leased satellites, each of which has a limited useful life. A number of factors affect the useful lives of the satellites, including, among other things, the quality of their construction, the durability of their component parts, the ability to continue to maintain proper orbit and control over the satellite’s functions, the efficiency of the launch vehicle used, and the remaining on-board fuel following orbit insertion. Generally, the minimum design life of each of our owned and leased satellites ranges from 12 to 15 years. We can provide no assurance, however, as to the actual useful lives of any of these satellites. Our operating results could be adversely affected if the useful life of any of our owned or leased satellites were significantly shorter than the minimum design life.

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In the event of a failure or loss of any of our owned or leased satellites, we may need to acquire or lease additional satellite capacity or relocate one of our other owned or leased satellites and use it as a replacement for the failed or lost satellite, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Such a failure could result in a prolonged loss of critical programming. A relocation would require FCC approval and, among other things, may require a showing to the FCC that the replacement satellite would not cause additional interference compared to the failed or lost satellite. We cannot be certain that we could obtain such FCC approval. If we choose to use a satellite in this manner, this use could adversely affect our ability to satisfy certain operational conditions associated with our authorizations. Failure to satisfy those conditions could result in the loss of such authorizations, which would have an adverse effect on our ability to generate revenues.

Our owned and leased satellites are subject to construction, launch, operational and environmental risks that could limit our ability to utilize these satellites.

Construction and launch risks. Operation of our DISH TV services requires that we have adequate satellite transmission capacity for the programming we offer. To accomplish this goal, from time to time, new satellites need to be built and launched. Satellite construction and launch is subject to significant risks, including construction and launch delays, launch failure and incorrect orbital placement. Certain launch vehicles that we may use have either unproven track records or have experienced launch failures in the recent past. The risks of launch delay and failure are usually greater when the launch vehicle does not have a track record of previous successful flights. Launch failures result in significant delays in the deployment of satellites because of the need both to construct replacement satellites, which can take more than three years, and to obtain other launch opportunities. Significant construction or launch delays could materially and adversely affect our ability to generate revenues. If we were unable to obtain launch insurance, or obtain launch insurance at rates we deem commercially reasonable, and a significant launch failure were to occur, it could impact our ability to fund future satellite procurement and launch opportunities.

In addition, the occurrence of future launch failures for other operators may delay the deployment of our satellites and materially and adversely affect our ability to insure the launch of our satellites at commercially reasonable premiums, if at all. See “We generally do not carry commercial in-orbit insurance on any of the satellites that we own, and could face significant impairment charges if any of our owned satellites fail” below for further information.

Operational risks. Satellites are subject to significant operational risks while in orbit. These risks include malfunctions, commonly referred to as anomalies that have occurred in our satellites and the satellites of other operators as a result of various factors, such as manufacturing defects, problems with the power systems or control systems of the satellites and general failures resulting from operating satellites in the harsh environment of space. See “Satellite anomalies or technological failures could adversely affect the value of a particular satellite or result in a complete loss. Some of the satellites DISH Network acquired pursuant to the Master Transaction Agreement have experienced anomalies that may affect their useful lives or prohibit us from operating them to their currently expected capacity, and one or more of the satellites may suffer a technological failure, either of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.” below.

Although we work closely with the satellite manufacturers to determine and eliminate the cause of anomalies in new satellites and provide for redundancies of many critical components in the satellites, we may experience anomalies in the future, whether of the types described above or arising from the failure of other systems or components.

Any single anomaly or series of anomalies could materially and adversely affect our operations and revenues and our relationship with current customers, as well as our ability to attract new customers for our DISH TV services. In particular, future anomalies may result in the loss of individual transponders on a satellite, a group of transponders on that satellite or the entire satellite, depending on the nature of the anomaly. Anomalies may also reduce the expected useful life of a satellite, thereby reducing the channels that could be offered using that satellite, or create additional expenses due to the need to provide replacement or back-up satellites.

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Environmental risks. Meteoroid events pose a potential threat to all in-orbit satellites. The probability that meteoroids will damage those satellites increases significantly when the Earth passes through the particulate stream left behind by comets. Occasionally, increased solar activity also poses a potential threat to all in-orbit satellites. Some decommissioned satellites are in uncontrolled orbits that pass through the geostationary belt at various points, and present hazards to operational satellites, including our satellites. We may be required to perform maneuvers to avoid collisions and these maneuvers may prove unsuccessful or could reduce the useful life of the satellite through the expenditure of fuel to perform these maneuvers. The loss, damage or destruction of any of our satellites as a result of an electrostatic storm, collision with space debris, malfunction or other event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Satellite anomalies or technological failures could adversely affect the value of a particular satellite or result in a complete loss. Some of the satellites DISH Network acquired pursuant to the Master Transaction Agreement have experienced anomalies that may affect their useful lives or prohibit us from operating them to their currently expected capacity, and one or more of the satellites may suffer a technological failure, either of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Satellites may experience anomalies from time to time, some of which may have a significant adverse effect on their remaining useful lives, the commercial operation of the satellites or our operating results or financial position. Some of the satellites DISH Network acquired pursuant to the Master Transaction Agreement have had anomalies in the past that have caused losses at EchoStar. For instance, the EchoStar X satellite experienced anomalies in the past which affected seven solar array circuits. In December 2017, the satellite experienced anomalies which affected one additional solar array circuit reducing the number of functional solar array circuits to 16. As a result of these anomalies, EchoStar experienced a reduction in revenue. There can be no assurance, however, that there will be no further anomalies with this or any other satellite, and any such anomalies could have adverse operational or financial effects in the future. In addition, there can be no assurance that we can recover critical transmission capacity in the event one or more of our satellites were to fail. Further, technological failures in any of the satellites may drastically reduce the useful life of that satellite to be significantly shorter than the minimum design life or immediately end the useful life.

We generally do not carry commercial in-orbit insurance on any of the satellites that we own and could face significant impairment charges if any of our owned satellites fail.

Generally, we do not carry commercial in-orbit insurance on any of the satellites we own, other than certain limited circumstances, and generally do not use commercial insurance to mitigate the potential financial impact of in-orbit failures because we believe that the cost of insurance premiums is uneconomical relative to the risk of such failures. Following DISH Network’s completion of the Master Transaction Agreement, we lease the vast majority of our satellite transponder capacity from DISH Network and still lease a portion of our satellite capacity from third parties. While we generally have had in-orbit satellite capacity sufficient to transmit our existing channels and some backup capacity to recover the transmission of certain critical programming, our backup capacity is limited. In the event of a failure or loss of any of our owned or leased satellites, we may need to acquire or lease additional satellite capacity or relocate one of our other owned or leased satellites and use it as a replacement for the failed or lost satellite. If one or more of our owned in-orbit satellites fail, we could be required to record significant impairment charges.

We may have potential conflicts of interest with EchoStar due to our and DISH Network’s common ownership and management.

We are an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of DISH Network, which controls all of our voting power and the appointment of all of our officers and directors. As a result of DISH Network’s control over us, questions relating to conflicts of interest may arise between EchoStar and us in a number of areas relating to our past and ongoing relationships between DISH Network and EchoStar. Areas in which conflicts of interest between EchoStar and us, as a result of our relationship with DISH Network, could arise include, but are not limited to, the following:

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Cross officerships, directorships and stock ownership. We and DISH Network have certain overlap in directors and executive officers with EchoStar. These individuals may have actual or apparent conflicts of interest with respect to matters involving or affecting each company. Currently, our and DISH Network’s Board of Directors and executive officers includes Charles W. Ergen, who serves as the Chairman of EchoStar and DISH Network and our Chairman. Mr. Ergen also has fiduciary duties to EchoStar’s shareholders. For example, there is the potential for a conflict of interest when DISH Network and/or us, on the one hand, or EchoStar, on the other hand, look at acquisitions and other business opportunities that may be suitable for both companies. In addition, certain of DISH Network’s and our directors and officers own EchoStar stock. Mr. Ergen beneficially owns approximately 51.2% of EchoStar’s total equity securities (assuming conversion of all Class B Common Stock into Class A Common Stock) and controls approximately 90.9% of the voting power of EchoStar. These ownership interests could create actual, apparent or potential conflicts of interest when these individuals are faced with decisions that could have different implications for DISH Network and/or us, on the one hand, and EchoStar, on the other hand. Furthermore, Mr. Ergen is employed by both us and EchoStar.

Intercompany agreements with EchoStar. In connection with and following the Spin-off and Share Exchange Agreement, DISH Network and EchoStar have entered into certain agreements pursuant to which DISH Network and we obtain certain products, services and rights from EchoStar, EchoStar obtains certain products, services and rights from DISH Network and us, and DISH Network and EchoStar have indemnified each other against certain liabilities arising from our respective businesses. See Note 17 in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our Related Party Transactions with EchoStar. The terms of certain of these agreements were established while EchoStar was a wholly-owned subsidiary of DISH Network and us and were not the result of arm’s length negotiations. The allocation of assets, liabilities, rights, indemnifications and other obligations between EchoStar and DISH Network under the separation and other intercompany agreements DISH Network entered into with EchoStar, in connection with the Spin-off, may have been different if agreed to by two unaffiliated parties. Had these agreements been negotiated with unaffiliated third parties, their terms may have been more favorable, or less favorable, to DISH Network. In addition, conflicts could arise between DISH Network and/or us, on the one hand, and EchoStar, on the other hand, in the interpretation or any extension or renegotiation of these existing agreements.

Additional intercompany transactions. EchoStar and its subsidiaries have and may continue to enter into transactions with DISH Network and its subsidiaries. Although the terms of any such transactions will be established based upon negotiations between EchoStar and DISH Network and, when appropriate, subject to the approval of a committee of the non-interlocking directors or in certain instances non-interlocking management, there can be no assurance that the terms of any such transactions will be as favorable to DISH Network or its subsidiaries or affiliates as may otherwise be obtained between unaffiliated parties.

Business opportunities. DISH Network has historically retained, and in the future may acquire, interests in various companies that have subsidiaries or controlled affiliates that own or operate domestic or foreign services that may compete with services offered by EchoStar. DISH Network and we may also compete with EchoStar when it or we participate in auctions for spectrum or orbital slots for our satellites.

Neither we nor DISH Network may be able to resolve any potential conflicts of interest with EchoStar, and, even if either we or DISH Network do so, the resolution may be less favorable than if either we or DISH Network were dealing with an unaffiliated party.

We do not have agreements with EchoStar that would prevent either company from competing with the other.

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We rely on key personnel and the loss of their services may negatively affect our business.

We believe that our future success will depend to a significant extent upon the performance of Charles W. Ergen, our Chairman, and certain other executives. The loss of Mr. Ergen or of certain other key executives could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although all of our executives have executed agreements limiting their ability to work for or consult with competitors if they leave us, we do not have employment agreements with any of them. Mr. Ergen also serves as the Chairman of EchoStar. To the extent our officers are performing services for EchoStar, this may divert their time and attention away from our business and may therefore adversely affect our business.

Acquisition and Capital Structure Risks

Our parent, DISH Network, has made substantial investments to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and other related assets. In addition, DISH Network has made substantial non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities related to AWS-3 wireless spectrum licenses.

Since 2008, DISH Network has directly invested over $11 billion to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and related assets and made over $10 billion in non-controlling investments in certain entities, for a total of over $21 billion, as described further below.

DISH Network Spectrum

DISH Network has directly invested over $11 billion to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and related assets. These wireless spectrum licenses are subject to certain interim and final build-out requirements, as well as certain renewal requirements. In March 2017, DISH Network notified the FCC that it planned to deploy a narrowband IoT network on certain of these wireless licenses, which was to be the first phase of its network deployment (“First Phase”). DISH Network expected to complete the First Phase by March 2020, with subsequent phases to be completed thereafter. DISH Network has entered into vendor contracts with multiple parties for, among other things, base stations, chipsets, modules, tower leases, the core network, Radio Frequency (“RF”) design, and deployment services for the First Phase.  Among other things, initial RF design in connection with the First Phase was complete, DISH Network had secured certain tower sites, and they were in the process of identifying and securing additional tower sites.  The core network had been installed and commissioned.  DISH Network installed the first base stations on sites in 2018 and were in the process of deploying the remaining base stations.  During October 2019, DISH Network paused work on its narrowband IoT deployment due to its March 2020 build-out deadlines being tolled as discussed above.  In addition, DISH Network has issued RFI/Ps to various vendors in the wireless industry as it moves forward with its 5G broadband network deployment (“5G Network Deployment”).  DISH Network currently expects expenditures for its wireless projects to be between $250 million and $500 million during 2020, excluding capitalized interest. DISH Network currently expects expenditures for its 5G Network Deployment to be approximately $10 billion, excluding capitalized interest.

DISH Network will need to make significant additional investments or partner with others to, among other things, commercialize, build-out, and integrate these licenses and related assets, and any additional acquired licenses and related assets; and comply with regulations applicable to such licenses. Depending on the nature and scope of such commercialization, build-out, integration efforts, and regulatory compliance, any such investments or partnerships could vary significantly. In addition, as DISH Network considers its options for the commercialization of its wireless spectrum, it will incur significant additional expenses and will have to make significant investments related to, among other things, research and development, wireless testing and wireless network infrastructure. DISH Network may also determine that additional wireless spectrum licenses may be required to commercialize its wireless business and to compete with other wireless service providers.

Beginning on November 5, 2019, and while the approval of the Sprint-TMUS merger is pending, the March 7, 2020 build-out deadline for both the AWS-4 and Lower 700 MHz E Block spectrum bands is tolled; however, if the Sprint-TMUS merger is not consummated, the original deadlines would be reinstated with extensions equal to the length of time the deadline was tolled. During October 2019, DISH Network paused work on its narrowband Internet of Things (“IoT”) deployment due to its March 2020 build-out deadlines being tolled. DISH Network has issued requests for information and proposals (“RFI/Ps”) to various vendors in the wireless industry as it moves forward with its 5G Network Deployment. 

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In connection with the development of DISH Network’s wireless business, including, without limitation, the efforts described above, we have made cash distributions to partially finance these efforts to date and may make additional cash distributions to finance, in whole or in part, DISH Network’s future efforts. There can be no assurance that DISH Network will be able to develop and implement a business model that will realize a return on these wireless spectrum licenses or that DISH Network will be able to profitably deploy the assets represented by these wireless spectrum licenses.

MVDDS Licenses. We had multichannel video distribution and data service (“MVDDS”) licenses in 82 out of 214 geographical license areas, including Los Angeles, New York City, Chicago and several other major metropolitan areas. By August 2014, we were required to meet certain FCC build-out requirements related to our MVDDS licenses, and we were subject to certain FCC service rules applicable to these licenses. In January 2015, the FCC granted our application to extend the build-out requirements related to our MVDDS licenses. We had until the third quarter 2019 to provide “substantial service” on our MVDDS licenses. On May 14, 2019, we and DISH Orbital II L.L.C (“DOLLC II”), an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DISH Network, entered into an agreement to sell our interests in the Local Multipoint Distribution Service (“LMDS”) and MVDDS licenses in exchange for the EchoStar XVIII satellite, including its related in-orbit incentive obligations. On July 22, 2019, DISH Network filed certifications with the FCC for all 82 MVDDS licenses demonstrating that it is providing “substantial service” with respect to each such license. The FCC will review DISH Network’s certifications and could, among other things, accept them, deny them, or seek additional information about DISH Network’s build-out. DISH Network cannot be certain about the timing for such FCC action. DISH Network’s MVDDS licenses may be terminated if the FCC finds it did not meet the substantial service build-out requirement. These wireless spectrum licenses expire in August 2024 unless they are renewed by the FCC.  There can be no assurances that the FCC will renew these wireless spectrum licenses.

In 2016, the MVDDS 5G Coalition, of which DISH Network is a member, filed a petition for rulemaking requesting the FCC to consider updating the rules to allow DISH Network to provide two-way 5G services using its MVDDS licenses. We cannot predict when or if the FCC will grant the petition and proceed with a rulemaking. If the FCC adopts rules that would allow DISH Network to provide two-way 5G services using its MVDDS licenses, the requests of OneWeb and others for authority to use the band for service from NGSO satellite systems may hinder our ability to provide 5G services using our MVDDS licenses.

LMDS Licenses. As a result of the completion of the Share Exchange on February 28, 2017, we acquired from EchoStar certain LMDS licenses in four markets: Cheyenne, Kansas City, Phoenix, and San Diego.  The “substantial service” milestone has been met with respect to each of the licenses. In addition, through the FCC’s Spectrum Frontiers proceeding, a portion of each of our LMDS licenses were reassigned to the Upper Microwave Flexible Use Service band (27.5-28.35 GHz), which will allow for a more flexible use of the licenses, including, among other things, 5G mobile operations. These wireless spectrum licenses have been renewed by the FCC through September 2028.  There can be no assurances that the FCC will renew these wireless spectrum licenses. On May 14, 2019, we and DOLLC II entered into an agreement to sell our interests in the LMDS and MVDDS licenses in exchange for the EchoStar XVIII satellite.

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DISH Network Non-Controlling Investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities Related to AWS-3 Wireless Spectrum Licenses

During 2015, through its wholly-owned subsidiaries American AWS-3 Wireless II L.L.C. (“American II”) and American AWS-3 Wireless III L.L.C. (“American III”), DISH Network initially made over $10 billion in certain non-controlling investments in Northstar Spectrum, LLC (“Northstar Spectrum”), the parent company of Northstar Wireless, LLC (“Northstar Wireless,” and collectively with Northstar Spectrum, the “Northstar Entities”), and in SNR Wireless HoldCo, LLC (“SNR HoldCo”), the parent company of SNR Wireless LicenseCo, LLC (“SNR Wireless,” and collectively with SNR HoldCo, the “SNR Entities”), respectively. On October 27, 2015, the FCC granted certain AWS-3 wireless spectrum licenses (the “AWS-3 Licenses”) to Northstar Wireless (the “Northstar Licenses”) and to SNR Wireless (the “SNR Licenses”), respectively. The Northstar Entities and/or the SNR Entities may need to raise significant additional capital in the future, which may be obtained from third party sources or from DISH Network, so that the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities may commercialize, build-out and integrate these AWS-3 Licenses, comply with regulations applicable to such AWS-3 Licenses, and make any potential payments related to the re-auction of AWS-3 licenses retained by the FCC. Depending upon the nature and scope of such commercialization, build-out, integration efforts, regulatory compliance, and potential re-auction payments, any such loans, equity contributions or partnerships could vary significantly. For further information regarding the potential re-auction of AWS-3 licenses retained by the FCC, see Note 15 “Commitments and Contingencies – Commitments – DISH Network Non-Controlling Investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities Related to AWS-3 Wireless Spectrum Licenses” in the Notes to DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.

In connection with certain funding obligations related to the investments by American II and American III discussed above, in February 2015, we paid a dividend of $8.250 billion to DOC for, among other things, general corporate purposes, which included such funding obligations, and to fund other DISH Network cash needs. We may make additional cash distributions to finance, in whole or in part, loans that DISH Network may make to the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities in the future related to DISH Network’s non-controlling investments in these entities. There can be no assurance that DISH Network will be able to obtain a profitable return on its non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities.

We may need to raise significant additional capital in the future, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all, to among other things, make additional cash distributions to DISH Network, continue investing in our business and to pursue acquisitions and other strategic transactions.

See “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Acquisition and Capital Structure Risks – We have made substantial investments to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and other related assets. In addition, we have made substantial non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities related to AWS-3 wireless spectrum licenses” in DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for further information.

Our parent, DISH Network, faces certain risks related to its non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities.

In addition to the risks described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Acquisition and Capital Structure Risks – We have made substantial investments to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and other related assets. In addition, we have made substantial non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities related to AWS-3 wireless spectrum licenses” in DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, DISH Network faces certain other risks related to its non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities, including, among others, the risks described below.

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On October 27, 2015, the FCC granted the Northstar Licenses to Northstar Wireless and the SNR Licenses to SNR Wireless, respectively. DISH Network does not own or control the Northstar Licenses or the SNR Licenses nor does it control the Northstar Entities or the SNR Entities. DISH Network does not have a right to require Northstar Manager, LLC (“Northstar Manager”), which owns a 15% controlling interest in, and is the sole manager of, Northstar Spectrum, or SNR Wireless Management, LLC (“SNR Management”), which owns a 15% controlling interest in, and is the sole manager of, SNR HoldCo, to sell their respective ownership interests in Northstar Spectrum and SNR Holdco to DISH Network. Northstar Manager, as the sole manager of Northstar Spectrum, and SNR Management, as the sole manager of SNR Holdco, will have the exclusive right and power to manage, operate and control Northstar Spectrum and SNR Holdco, respectively, subject to certain limited protective provisions for the benefit of American II and American III, respectively. Northstar Manager and SNR Management will have the ability, but not the obligation, to require Northstar Spectrum and SNR Holdco, respectively, to purchase Northstar Manager’s and SNR Management’s ownership interests in those respective entities after the fifth and sixth anniversaries of the grant date of the Northstar Licenses and the SNR Licenses (and in certain circumstances prior to the fifth anniversary of the grant date of the Northstar Licenses and the SNR Licenses). Thus, DISH Network cannot be certain that the Northstar Licenses or the SNR Licenses will be developed in a manner fully consistent with its current or future business plans.

Each of Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless applied to receive bidding credits of 25% as designated entities under applicable FCC rules. The FCC implemented rules and policies governing the designated entity program that are intended to ensure that qualifying designated entities are not controlled by operators or investors that do not meet certain qualification tests. Qualification is also subject to challenge in qui tam lawsuits filed by private parties alleging that participants have defrauded the government in which the person bringing the suit may share in any recovery by the government. Furthermore, litigation surrounding designated entity structures, increased regulatory scrutiny or third party or government lawsuits with respect to DISH Network’s non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities could result in fines, and in certain cases, license revocation and/or criminal penalties.

On August 18, 2015, the FCC released a Memorandum Opinion and Order, FCC 15-104 (the “Order”) in which the FCC determined, among other things, that DISH Network has a controlling interest in, and is an affiliate of, Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless, and therefore DISH Network’s revenues should be attributed to them, which in turn makes Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless ineligible to receive the Bidding Credit Amounts (approximately $1.961 billion for Northstar Wireless and $1.370 billion for SNR Wireless). Each of Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless has filed a notice of appeal and petition for review of the Order with the D.C. Circuit, challenging, among other things, the FCC’s determination that they are ineligible to receive the Bidding Credit Amounts. Oral arguments were presented to the Court on September 26, 2016. On August 29, 2017, the D.C. Circuit issued its opinion, holding that: (i) the FCC reasonably applied its precedent to determine that DISH Network exercised a disqualifying degree of de facto control over Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless (rendering them ineligible to claim the Bidding Credit Amounts), but (ii) the FCC did not give Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless adequate notice that, if their relationships with DISH Network cost them the Bidding Credit Amounts, the FCC would also deny them an opportunity to cure. The case was remanded to the FCC to give Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless an opportunity to seek to negotiate a cure for the de facto control the FCC found that DISH Network exercises over them. On January 24, 2018, the FCC released an Order on Remand, DA 18-70 (the “Order on Remand”) purporting to establish a procedure to afford Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless the opportunity to implement a Cure pursuant to the Appellate Decision. The Order on Remand provided that Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless each had until April 24, 2018 to file the necessary documentation to demonstrate that, in light of such changes, each of Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless qualifies for the very small business bidding credit that it sought in the AWS-3 Auction. Additionally, the Order on Remand provides that if either Northstar Wireless or SNR Wireless needs additional time to negotiate new or amended agreements, it may request to extend the deadline for such negotiations for an additional 45 days (extending the deadline to June 8, 2018). On April 16, 2018, the FCC approved Northstar Wireless’ and SNR Wireless’ requests to extend the deadline for such negotiations for an additional 45 days to June 8, 2018.

On June 8, 2018, Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless each filed amended agreements to demonstrate that, in light of such changes, each of Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless qualifies for the very small business bidding credit that it sought in the AWS-3 Auction.  The Order on Remand also provided, among other things, until July 23, 2018 for certain third-parties to file comments about any changes to the agreements proposed by Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless and several third-parties filed comments (with one opposition). On October 22, 2018, Northstar Wireless and SNR Wireless filed a response to the third-party comments. DISH Network cannot predict with any degree of certainty the timing or outcome of these proceedings.

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See “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Acquisition and Capital Structure Risks We have made substantial investments to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and other related assets. In addition, we have made substantial non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities related to AWS-3 wireless spectrum licenses” in DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for further information.

In addition, on September 23, 2016, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia unsealed a qui tam complaint that was filed by Vermont National Telephone Company against DISH Network; its wholly-owned subsidiaries, American AWS-3 Wireless I L.L.C., American II, American III, and DISH Wireless Holding L.L.C.; Charles W. Ergen (our Chairman) and Cantey M. Ergen (a member of DISH Network’s board of directors); Northstar Wireless; Northstar Spectrum; Northstar Manager; SNR Wireless; SNR HoldCo; SNR Management; and certain other parties. See “Commitments and Contingencies – Contingencies – Litigation – Vermont National Telephone Company” in Note 12 in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

DISH Network may need to make significant additional loans to the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities, or they may need to partner with others, so that the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities may commercialize, build-out and integrate the Northstar Licenses and the SNR Licenses, comply with regulations applicable to the Northstar Licenses and the SNR Licenses, and make any potential payments related to the re-auction of the AWS-3 licenses retained by the FCC. Depending upon the nature and scope of such commercialization, build-out, integration efforts, regulatory compliance, and potential Northstar Re-Auction Payment and SNR Re-Auction Payment, any such loans or partnerships could vary significantly. DISH Network may need to raise significant additional capital in the future, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all, to make further investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities. There can be no assurance that DISH Network will be able to obtain a profitable return on its non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities.

In connection with certain funding obligations related to the investments by American II and American III discussed above, in February 2015, we paid a dividend of $8.250 billion to DOC for, among other things, general corporate purposes, which included such funding obligations, and to fund other DISH Network cash needs. We may make additional cash distributions to finance, in whole or in part, loans that DISH Network may make to the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities in the future related to DISH Network’s non-controlling investments in these entities. We may need to raise significant additional capital in the future, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all, to among other things, make additional cash distributions to DISH Network, continue investing in our business and to pursue acquisitions and other strategic transactions.

To the extent that our parent, DISH Network, commercializes its wireless spectrum licenses, it will face certain risks entering and competing in the wireless services industry and operating a wireless services business.

DISH Network has made substantial investments to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and related assets. These wireless spectrum licenses are subject to certain interim and final build-out requirements, as well as certain renewal requirements. DISH Network will need to make significant additional investments or partner with others to, among other things, commercialize, build-out, and integrate these licenses and related assets, and any additional acquired licenses and related assets; and comply with regulations applicable to such licenses. Depending on the nature and scope of such commercialization, build-out, integration efforts, and regulatory compliance, any such investments or partnerships could vary significantly. In connection with the development of DISH Network’s wireless business, including, without limitation, the efforts described above, we have made cash distributions to partially finance these efforts to date and may make additional cash distributions to finance, in whole or in part, DISH Network’s future efforts. DISH Network may also determine that additional wireless spectrum licenses may be required to commercialize its wireless business and to compete with other wireless service providers. See “Our parent, DISH Network, has made substantial investments to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and other related assets. In addition, DISH Network has made substantial non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities related to AWS-3 wireless spectrum licenses” above for further information. We may need to raise significant additional capital in the future to fund the efforts described above, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. There can be no assurance that DISH Network will be able to develop and implement a business model that will realize a return on these wireless spectrum licenses or that it will be able to profitably deploy the assets represented by these wireless spectrum licenses.

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To the extent DISH Network commercializes its wireless spectrum licenses and enters the wireless services industry, a wireless services business presents certain risks.

The wireless services industry is competitive. DISH Network has limited experience in the wireless services industry, which is a competitive industry with increasing customer demands for data services that require increasing capital resources to maintain a robust network. The wireless services industry has incumbent and established competitors such as Verizon Communications, Inc. (“Verizon”), AT&T, T-Mobile USA Inc. (“T-Mobile”) and Sprint Corporation (“Sprint”), with substantial market share. Some of these companies have greater financial, marketing and other resources than DISH Network, and have existing cost and operational advantages that DISH Network lacks. Market saturation is expected to continue to cause the wireless services industry’s customer growth rate to moderate in comparison to historical growth rates, leading to increased competition for customers. As the industry matures, competitors increasingly must seek to attract a greater proportion of new subscribers from each other’s existing subscriber bases rather than from first-time purchasers of wireless services. Furthermore, the cost of attracting a new customer is generally higher than the cost associated with retaining an existing customer. In addition, DISH Network may face increasing competition from wireless telecommunications providers who offer mobile video offerings. Wireless mobile video offerings have become more prevalent in the marketplace as wireless telecommunications providers have expanded the fourth generation of wireless communications.

In July 2015, AT&T completed its acquisition of DirecTV, our direct competitor and the largest satellite TV provider in the United States, which has an OTT service, AT&T TV Now, that competes directly with our Sling TV services. As a result of this acquisition, DirecTV, among other things, has increased access to capital, access to AT&T’s nationwide platform for wireless mobile video, and the ability to more seamlessly bundle its video services with AT&T’s broadband Internet access and wireless services. The combined company may be able to, among other things, pressure third-party content owners and programmers to withhold online rights from us; utilize its increased leverage over third-party content owners and programmers to reduce the price it pays for programming at the expense of other MVPDs, including us; thwart DISH Network’s entry into the wireless market, by, among other things, refusing to enter into data roaming agreements with DISH Network; foreclose or degrade our online video offerings at various points in the broadband pipe; and impose data caps on consumers who access our online video offerings. In addition, in October 2016, AT&T announced its acquisition of Time Warner (which owns certain Turner, HBO and Cinemax channels), which was completed in June 2018. The addition of Time Warner’s media holdings, which include content, such as HBO, TBS, TNT, CNN, and movies, would, among other things, provide the combined company increased scale and leverage in the converging video, mobile, and broadband industries.

Also, in December 2017, Walt Disney Company announced its acquisition of certain assets of Twenty-First Century Fox, Inc., which was completed in March 2019.  These transactions may affect us adversely by, among other things, making it more difficult for us to obtain access to certain programming networks on nondiscriminatory and fair terms, or at all. For example, in connection with AT&T’s acquisition of Time Warner, Turner sent all of its distributors written, irrevocable offers to submit disputes over the price and other terms of Turner programming to binding arbitration and to guarantee continued access to that programming while any arbitration is pending.

However, in October 2018, AT&T removed its HBO and Cinemax channels, which are not part of Turner, from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup, as we and AT&T have been unable to negotiate the terms and conditions of a new programming carriage contract. Furthermore, AT&T offers its programming, including its HBO and Cinemax channels, directly to consumers over the Internet and provides HBO for free to its subscribers under certain offers. In addition, AT&T’s current zero rating practice may give an unfair advantage to AT&T’s own video content, which currently includes, among others, DirecTV services, including “AT&T TV Now,” and AT&T’s “Watch TV” on mobile devices.

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DISH Network’s ability to compete effectively would be dependent on a number of factors. DISH Network’s ability to compete effectively would depend on, among other things, DISH Network’s network quality, capacity and coverage; the pricing of DISH Network’s products and services; the quality of customer service; DISH Network’s development of new and enhanced products and services; the reach and quality of DISH Network’s sales and distribution channels; our ability to predict and adapt to future changes in technologies and changes in consumer demands; and capital resources. It would also depend on how successfully DISH Network anticipates and responds to various competitive factors affecting the industry, including, among others, new technologies and business models, products and services that may be introduced by competitors, changes in consumer preferences, the demand for and usage of data, video and other voice and non-voice services, demographic trends, economic conditions, and discount pricing and other strategies that may be implemented by competitors. It may be difficult for DISH Network to differentiate its products and services from other competitors in the industry, which may limit DISH Network’s ability to attract customers. DISH Network’s success also may depend on its ability to access and deploy adequate spectrum, deploy new technologies and offer attractive services to customers. For example, DISH Network may not be able to obtain and offer certain technologies or features that are subject to competitor patents or other exclusive arrangements.

DISH Network would depend on third parties to provide it with infrastructure and products and services. DISH Network would depend on various key suppliers and vendors to provide it, directly or through other suppliers, with infrastructure, equipment and services, such as switch and network equipment, handsets and other devices and equipment that DISH Network would need in order to operate a wireless services business and provide products and services to its customers. For example, handset and other device suppliers often rely on one vendor for the manufacture and supply of critical components, such as chipsets, used in their devices. If these suppliers or vendors fail to provide equipment or services on a timely basis or fail to meet performance expectations, DISH Network may be unable to provide products and services as and when expected by its customers. Any difficulties experienced with these suppliers and vendors could result in additional expense and/or delays in introducing DISH Network’s wireless services. DISH Network’s efforts would involve significant expense and require strategic management decisions on, and timely implementation of, equipment choices, network deployment and management, and service offerings. In addition, these suppliers and vendors may also be subject to litigation with respect to technology on which DISH Network would depend, including litigation involving claims of patent infringement.

Wireless services and DISH Network’s wireless spectrum licenses are subject to government regulation. Wireless services and DISH Network’s wireless spectrum licenses are subject to regulation by the FCC and other federal, state and local, as well as international, governmental authorities. These governmental authorities could adopt regulations or take other actions that would adversely affect DISH Network’s business prospects, making it more difficult and/or expensive to commercialize its wireless spectrum licenses or acquire additional licenses. The licensing, construction, operation, sale and interconnection arrangements of wireless telecommunications systems are regulated by the FCC and, depending on the jurisdiction, other federal and international, state and local regulatory agencies. In particular, the FCC imposes significant regulation on licensees of wireless spectrum with respect to how radio spectrum is used by licensees, the nature of the services that licensees may offer and how the services may be offered, and resolution of issues of interference between spectrum bands. The FCC grants wireless licenses for terms of generally ten years that are subject to renewal or revocation based on certain factors depending on the license including, among others, public interest considerations, level and quality of services and/or operations provided by the licensee, frequency and duration of any interruptions or outages of services and/or operations provided by the licensee, and the extent to which service is provided to, and/or operation is provided in, rural areas and tribal lands. There can be no assurances that DISH Network’s wireless spectrum licenses will be renewed or that DISH Network will be able to obtain additional licenses. Failure to comply with FCC requirements in a given license area could result in revocation of the license for that license area. In addition, the FCC uses its transactional “spectrum screen” to identify prospective wireless transactions that may require additional competitive scrutiny. If a proposed transaction would exceed the spectrum screen threshold, the FCC undertakes a more detailed analysis of relevant market conditions in the impacted geographic areas to determine whether the transaction would reduce competition without offsetting public benefits. If a proposed spectrum acquisition exceeds the spectrum screen trigger, such additional review could extend the duration of the regulatory review process and there can be no assurance that such proposed spectrum acquisition would ultimately be completed, in whole or in part. For further information related to DISH Network’s wireless spectrum licenses, including build-out requirements, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.

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We may pursue acquisitions and other strategic transactions to complement or expand our business that may not be successful, and we may lose up to the entire value of our investment in these acquisitions and transactions.

Our future success may depend on opportunities to buy other businesses or technologies that could complement, enhance or expand our current business or products or that might otherwise offer us growth opportunities. To pursue this strategy successfully, we must identify attractive acquisition or investment opportunities and successfully complete transactions, some of which may be large and complex. We may not be able to identify or complete attractive acquisition or investment opportunities due to, among other things, the intense competition for these transactions. If we are not able to identify and complete such acquisition or investment opportunities, our future results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

We may be unable to obtain in the anticipated timeframe, or at all, any regulatory approvals required to complete proposed acquisitions and other strategic transactions. Furthermore, the conditions imposed for obtaining any necessary approvals could delay the completion of such transactions for a significant period of time or prevent them from occurring at all. We may not be able to complete such transactions and such transactions, if executed, pose significant risks and could have a negative effect on our operations. Any transactions that we are able to identify and complete may involve a number of risks, including:

the diversion of our management’s attention from our existing business to integrate the operations and personnel of the acquired or combined business or joint venture;
possible adverse effects on our operating results during the integration process;
a high degree of risk inherent in these transactions, which could become substantial over time, and higher exposure to significant financial losses if the underlying ventures are not successful;
our possible inability to achieve the intended objectives of the transaction; and
the risks associated with complying with regulations applicable to the acquired business, which may cause us to incur substantial expenses.

In addition, we may not be able to successfully or profitably integrate, operate, maintain and manage our newly acquired operations or employees. We may not be able to maintain uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies, and this may lead to operational inefficiencies. In addition, the integration process may strain our financial and managerial controls and reporting systems and procedures.

New acquisitions, joint ventures and other transactions may require the commitment of significant capital that would otherwise be directed to investments in our existing business. To pursue acquisitions and other strategic transactions, we may need to raise additional capital in the future, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. In addition, we make cash distributions to DISH Network to finance acquisitions or investments that will not be part of our business.

In addition to committing capital to complete the acquisitions, substantial capital may be required to operate the acquired businesses following their acquisition. These acquisitions may result in significant financial losses if the intended objectives of the transactions are not achieved. Some of the businesses acquired by DISH Network have experienced significant operating and financial challenges in their recent history, which in some cases resulted in these businesses commencing bankruptcy proceedings prior to DISH Network’s acquisition. DISH Network may acquire similar businesses in the future. There is no assurance that DISH Network will be able to successfully address the challenges and risks encountered by these businesses following their acquisition. If DISH Network is unable to successfully address these challenges and risks, our business, financial condition and/or results of operations may suffer.

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We may need additional capital, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all, to continue investing in our business and to finance acquisitions and other strategic transactions.

We may need to raise significant additional capital in the future, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all, to among other things, continue investing in our business, construct and launch new satellites, and to pursue acquisitions and other strategic transactions. Weakness in the equity markets could make it difficult for DISH Network to raise equity financing without incurring substantial dilution to DISH Network’s existing shareholders. Adverse changes in the credit markets, including rising interest rates, could increase our borrowing costs and/or make it more difficult for us to obtain financing for our operations or refinance existing indebtedness. In addition, economic weakness or weak results of operations may limit our ability to generate sufficient internal cash to fund investments, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other strategic transactions, as well as to fund ongoing operations and service our debt. We may be unable to generate cash flows from operating activities sufficient to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our debt and other obligations. If we are unable to service our debt and other obligations from cash flows from operating activities, we may need to refinance or restructure all or a portion of such obligations prior to maturity. Any refinancing or restructuring could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and/or financial condition. In addition, we cannot guarantee that any refinancing or restructuring would sufficiently meet any debt or other obligations then due. Furthermore, our borrowing costs can be affected by short and long-term debt ratings assigned by independent rating agencies, which are based, in significant part, on our performance as measured by their credit metrics. A decrease in these ratings would likely increase our cost of borrowing and/or make it more difficult for us to obtain financing. A severe disruption in the global financial markets could impact some of the financial institutions with which we do business, and such instability could also affect our access to financing. As a result, these conditions make it difficult for us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities because we may not have access to funding sources necessary for us to pursue organic and strategic business development opportunities.

See “Our parent, DISH Network, has made substantial investments to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and other related assets. In addition, DISH Network has made substantial non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities related to AWS-3 wireless spectrum licenses” above for further information.

We have substantial debt outstanding and may incur additional debt.

As of December 31, 2019, our total long-term debt and finance lease obligations, including the debt of our subsidiaries, was $10.822 billion. Our debt levels could have significant consequences, including:

making it more difficult to satisfy our obligations;
a dilutive effect on our future earnings;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic conditions, including changes in interest rates;
requiring us to devote a substantial portion of our cash to make interest and principal payments on our debt, thereby reducing the amount of cash available for other purposes. As a result, we would have limited financial and operating flexibility in responding to changing economic and competitive conditions;
limiting our ability to raise additional debt because it may be more difficult for us to obtain debt financing on attractive terms; and
placing us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged.

In addition, we may incur substantial additional debt in the future. The terms of the indentures relating to our senior notes permit us to incur additional debt. If new debt is added to our current debt levels, the risks we now face could intensify.

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Our parent, DISH Network, is controlled by one principal stockholder who is also our Chairman.

Charles W. Ergen, DISH Network’s Chairman, beneficially owns approximately 52.3% of DISH Network’s total equity securities (assuming conversion of all Class B Common Stock into Class A Common Stock) and controls approximately 91.0% of the total voting power. Through his voting power, Mr. Ergen has the ability to elect a majority of DISH Network’s directors and to control all other matters requiring the approval of DISH Network’s stockholders. As a result, DISH Network is a “controlled company” as defined in the Nasdaq listing rules and is, therefore, not subject to Nasdaq requirements that would otherwise require DISH Network to have: (i) a majority of independent directors; (ii) a nominating committee composed solely of independent directors; (iii) compensation of our executive officers determined by a majority of the independent directors or a compensation committee composed solely of independent directors; and (iv) director nominees selected, or recommended for the Board’s selection, either by a majority of the independent directors or a nominating committee composed solely of independent directors. Mr. Ergen is also the principal stockholder and Chairman of EchoStar.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

The rulings in the Telemarketing litigation requiring us to pay up to an aggregate amount of $280 million and imposing certain injunctive relief against us, if upheld, would have a material adverse effect on our cash, cash equivalents and marketable investment securities balances and our business operations.

On March 25, 2009, our wholly-owned subsidiary DISH Network L.L.C. was sued in a civil action by the United States Attorney General and several states in the United States District Court for the Central District of Illinois (the “FTC Action”), alleging violations of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”) and the Telemarketing Sales Rule (“TSR”), as well as analogous state statutes and state consumer protection laws. The plaintiffs alleged that we, directly and through certain independent third-party retailers and their affiliates, committed certain telemarketing violations. On December 23, 2013, the plaintiffs filed a motion for summary judgment, which indicated for the first time that the state plaintiffs were seeking civil penalties and damages of approximately $270 million and that the federal plaintiff was seeking an unspecified amount of civil penalties (which could substantially exceed the civil penalties and damages being sought by the state plaintiffs). The plaintiffs were also seeking injunctive relief that if granted would, among other things, enjoin DISH Network L.L.C., whether acting directly or indirectly through authorized telemarketers or independent third-party retailers, from placing any outbound telemarketing calls to market or promote its goods or services for five years, and enjoin DISH Network L.L.C. from accepting activations or sales from certain existing independent third-party retailers and from certain new independent third-party retailers, except under certain circumstances. We also filed a motion for summary judgment, seeking dismissal of all claims. On December 12, 2014, the Court issued its opinion with respect to the parties’ summary judgment motions. The Court found that DISH Network L.L.C. was entitled to partial summary judgment with respect to one claim in the action. In addition, the Court found that the plaintiffs were entitled to partial summary judgment with respect to ten claims in the action, which included, among other things, findings by the Court establishing DISH Network L.L.C.’s liability for a substantial amount of the alleged outbound telemarketing calls by DISH Network L.L.C. and certain of its independent third-party retailers that were the subject of the plaintiffs’ motion. The Court did not issue any injunctive relief and did not make any determination on civil penalties or damages, ruling instead that the scope of any injunctive relief and the amount of any civil penalties or damages were questions for trial.

The first phase of the bench trial took place January 19, 2016 through February 11, 2016 and the second phase took place October 25, 2016 through November 2, 2016.

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On June 5, 2017, the Court issued Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law and entered Judgment ordering DISH Network L.L.C. to pay an aggregate amount of $280 million to the federal and state plaintiffs.  The Court also issued a Permanent Injunction (the “Injunction”) against DISH Network L.L.C. that imposes certain ongoing compliance requirements on DISH Network L.L.C., which include, among other things: (i) the retention of a telemarketing-compliance expert to prepare a plan to ensure that DISH Network L.L.C. and certain independent third-party retailers will continue to comply with telemarketing laws and the Injunction; (ii) certain telemarketing records retention and production requirements; and (iii) certain compliance reporting and monitoring requirements.  In addition to the compliance requirements under the Injunction, within ninety (90) days after the effective date of the Injunction, DISH Network L.L.C. is required to demonstrate that it and certain independent third-party retailers are in compliance with the Safe Harbor Provisions of the TSR and TCPA and have made no prerecorded telemarketing calls during the five (5) years prior to the effective date of the Injunction (collectively, the “Demonstration Requirements”). If DISH Network L.L.C. fails to prove that it meets the Demonstration Requirements, it will be barred from conducting any outbound telemarketing for two (2) years. If DISH Network L.L.C. fails to prove that a particular independent third-party retailer meets the Demonstration Requirements, DISH Network L.L.C. will be barred from accepting orders from that independent third-party retailer for two (2) years. On July 3, 2017, DISH Network L.L.C. filed two motions with the Court: (1) to alter or amend the Judgment or in the alternative to amend the Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law; and (2) to clarify, alter and amend the Injunction. On August 10, 2017, the Court: (a) denied the motion to alter or amend the Judgment or in the alternative to amend the Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law; and (b) allowed, in part, the motion to clarify, alter and amend the Injunction, and entered an Amended Permanent Injunction (the “Amended Injunction”). Among other things, the Amended Injunction provided DISH Network L.L.C a thirty (30) day extension to meet the Demonstration Requirements, expanded the exclusion of certain independent third-party retailers from the Demonstration Requirements, and clarified that, with regard to independent third-party retailers, the Amended Injunction only applied to their telemarketing of DISH TV goods and services. On October 10, 2017, DISH Network L.L.C. filed a notice of appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, which heard oral argument on September 17, 2018.

During the second quarter 2017, we recorded $255 million of “Litigation expense” related to the FTC Action on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss). We recorded $25 million of “Litigation expense” related to the FTC Action during periods prior to 2017. Our total accrual at December 31, 2019 and 2018 related to the FTC Action was $280 million and is included in “Other accrued expenses” on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Any eventual payments made with respect to the FTC Action may not be deductible for tax purposes, which had a negative impact on our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2017. The tax deductibility of any eventual payments made with respect to the FTC Action may change, based upon, among other things, further developments in the FTC Action, including final adjudication of the FTC Action.

We may also from time to time be subject to private civil litigation alleging telemarketing violations. For example, a portion of the alleged telemarketing violations by an independent third-party retailer at issue in the FTC Action are also the subject of a certified class action filed against DISH Network L.L.C. in the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina (the “Krakauer Action”). Following a five-day trial, on January 19, 2017, a jury in that case found that the independent third-party retailer was acting as DISH Network L.L.C.’s agent when it made the 51,119 calls at issue in that case, and that class members are eligible to recover $400 in damages for each call made in violation of the TCPA. On May 22, 2017, the Court ruled that the violations were willful and knowing, and trebled the damages award to $1,200 for each call made in violation of TCPA. On April 5, 2018, the Court entered a $61 million judgment in favor of the class. DISH Network L.L.C. appealed and on May 30, 2019, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit affirmed. On October 15, 2019, DISH Network L.L.C. filed a petition for writ of certiorari, requesting that the United States Supreme Court agree to hear a further appeal, but it denied the petition on December 16, 2019. On January 21, 2020, DISH Network L.L.C. filed a second notice of appeal relating to the district court’s orders on the claims administration process to identify, and disburse funds to, individual class members.

During the second quarter 2017, we recorded $41 million of “Litigation expense” related to the Krakauer Action on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).  We recorded $20 million of “Litigation expense” related to the Krakauer Action during the fourth quarter 2016. Our total accrual related to the Krakauer Action at December 31, 2018 was $61 million and was included in “Other accrued expenses” on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. During the third quarter 2019, the judgment was paid to the court.

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The rulings in the Telemarketing litigation requiring us to pay up to an aggregate amount of $280 million and imposing certain injunctive relief against us, if upheld, would have a material adverse effect on our cash, cash equivalents and marketable investment securities balances and our business operations.

Our business may be materially affected by the Tax Reform Act. Negative or unexpected tax consequences could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations

On December 22, 2017, the Tax Reform Act was enacted making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code. Such changes include, but are not limited to, a reduction in the corporate tax rate and certain limitations on corporate deductions (e.g., a limitation on the interest expense deduction available to companies). These changes could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. However, we are still assessing the full impact of the Tax Reform Act and cannot predict the manner in which regulations or legislation in these areas may be interpreted and enforced or the impact that such interpretations and enforcement could have on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business depends on certain intellectual property rights and on not infringing the intellectual property rights of others.

We rely on our patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, as well as licenses and other agreements with our vendors and other parties, to use our technologies, conduct our operations and sell our products and services. Legal challenges to our intellectual property rights and claims of intellectual property infringement by third parties could require that we enter into royalty or licensing agreements on unfavorable terms, incur substantial monetary liability or be enjoined preliminarily or permanently from further use of the intellectual property in question or from the continuation of our business as currently conducted, which could require us to change our business practices or limit our ability to compete effectively or could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Even if we believe any such challenges or claims are without merit, they can be time-consuming and costly to defend and divert management’s attention and resources away from our business. Moreover, because of the rapid pace of technological change, we rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and if we are unable to obtain or continue to obtain licenses from these third parties on reasonable terms, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

In addition, we work with third parties such as vendors, contractors and suppliers for the development and manufacture of components that are integrated into our products and services, and our products and services may contain technologies provided to us by these third parties or other third parties. We may have little or no ability to determine in advance whether any such technology infringes the intellectual property rights of others. Our vendors, contractors and suppliers may not be required to indemnify us if a claim of infringement is asserted against us, or they may be required to indemnify us only up to a maximum amount, above which we would be responsible for any further costs or damages. Legal challenges to these intellectual property rights may impair our ability to use the products, services and technologies that we need in order to operate our business and may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, our digital content offerings depend in part on effective digital rights management technology to control access to digital content. If the digital rights management technology that we use is compromised or otherwise malfunctions, content providers may be unwilling to provide access to their content. Changes in the copyright laws or how such laws may be interpreted could impact our ability to deliver content and provide certain features and functionality, particularly over the Internet.

We are, and may become, party to various lawsuits which, if adversely decided, could have a significant adverse impact on our business, particularly lawsuits regarding intellectual property.

We are, and may become, subject to various legal proceedings and claims which arise in the ordinary course of business, including among other things, disputes with programmers regarding fees. Many entities, including some of our competitors, have or may in the future obtain patents and other intellectual property rights that may cover or affect products or services related to those that we offer. In general, if a court determines that one or more of our products or services infringes on intellectual property held by others, we may be required to cease developing or marketing those products or services, to obtain licenses from the holders of the intellectual property at a material cost, or to redesign those products or services in such a way as to avoid infringing the intellectual property. If those intellectual property rights are held by a competitor, we may be unable to obtain the intellectual property at any price, which could adversely affect our competitive position. See “Item 1. Business Patents and Other Intellectual Property” of DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for further information.

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We may not be aware of all intellectual property rights that our services or the products used in connection with our services may potentially infringe. In addition, patent applications in the United States are confidential until the Patent and Trademark Office either publishes the application or issues a patent (whichever arises first). Therefore, it is difficult to evaluate the extent to which our services or the products used in connection with our services may infringe claims contained in pending patent applications. Further, it is sometimes not possible to determine definitively whether a claim of infringement is valid.

Our ability to distribute video content via the Internet, including our Sling TV services, involves regulatory risk.

Certain of our programming agreements allow us to, among other things, deliver certain authenticated content via the Internet and/or deliver certain content through our Sling TV services, and we are increasingly distributing video content to our subscribers via the Internet and through our Sling TV services. The ability to continue this strategy may depend in part on the FCC’s success in implementing rules prohibiting fixed and mobile broadband access providers, among other things, from blocking or throttling traffic, from paid privatization, and from unreasonably interfering with, or disadvantaging, consumers’ or content providers’ access to the Internet.

See “Item 1. Business Government Regulations FCC Regulations Governing our Pay-TV Operations Open Internet” of DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for further information.

Changes in the Cable Act, and/or the rules of the FCC that implement the Cable Act, may limit our ability to access programming from cable-affiliated programmers at nondiscriminatory rates.

We purchase a large percentage of our programming from cable-affiliated programmers. Pursuant to the Cable Act, cable providers had been prohibited from entering into exclusive contracts with cable-affiliated programmers. The Cable Act directed that this prohibition expires after a certain period of time unless the FCC determined that the prohibition continued to be necessary. In October 2012, the FCC allowed this prohibition to expire. While the FCC has issued a Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking aimed at serving some of the same objectives as the prohibition, there can be no assurances that such protections will be adopted or be as effective as the prohibition if they are adopted. In the event that this decision is reconsidered by the FCC or reviewed by a court of appeals, we cannot predict the timing or outcome of any subsequent FCC decision.

As a result of the expiration of this prohibition on exclusivity, we may be limited in our ability to obtain access at all, or on nondiscriminatory terms, to programming from programmers that are affiliated with cable system operators. In addition, any other changes in the Cable Act, and/or the FCC’s rules that implement the Cable Act, that currently limit the ability of cable-affiliated programmers to discriminate against competing businesses such as ours, could adversely affect our ability to acquire cable-affiliated programming at all or to acquire programming on nondiscriminatory terms.

Furthermore, the FCC had imposed program access conditions on certain cable companies as a result of mergers, consolidations or affiliations with programmers. The expiration of the exclusivity prohibition in the Cable Act triggered the termination of certain program access conditions that the FCC had imposed on Liberty Media Corporation (“Liberty”). In July 2012, similar program access conditions that had applied to Time Warner Cable, which was acquired by Charter in 2016, expired as previously scheduled. These developments may adversely affect our ability to obtain Liberty’s and Charter’s programming, or to obtain it on nondiscriminatory terms. In the case of certain types of programming affiliated with Comcast through its control of NBCUniversal, the prohibition on exclusivity expired in January 2018, and we can no longer rely on these protections.

In addition, affiliates of certain cable providers have denied us access to sports programming that they distribute to their cable systems terrestrially, rather than by satellite. The FCC has held that new denials of such service are unfair if they have the purpose or effect of significantly hindering us from providing programming to consumers. However, we cannot be certain that we can prevail in a complaint related to such programming and gain access to it. Our continuing failure to access such programming could materially and adversely affect our ability to compete in regions serviced by these cable providers.

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The injunction against our retransmission of distant networks, which is currently waived, may be reinstated.

Pursuant to the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 (“STELA”), we obtained a waiver of a court injunction that previously prevented us from retransmitting certain distant network signals under a statutory copyright license. Because of that waiver, we may provide distant network signals to eligible subscribers. To qualify for that waiver, we are required to provide local service in all 210 local markets in the United States on an ongoing basis. This condition poses a significant strain on our capacity. Moreover, we may lose that waiver if we are found to have failed to provide local service in any of the 210 local markets. If we lose the waiver, the injunction could be reinstated. Furthermore, depending on the severity of the failure, we may also be subject to other sanctions, which may include, among other things, damages.

We are subject to significant regulatory oversight, and changes in applicable regulatory requirements, including any adoption or modification of laws or regulations relating to the Internet, could adversely affect our business.

Our operations are subject to significant government regulation and oversight, primarily by the FCC and, to a certain extent, by Congress, other federal agencies and foreign, state and local authorities. Depending upon the circumstances, noncompliance with legislation or regulations promulgated by these authorities could result in the limitations on, or suspension or revocation of, our licenses or registrations, the termination or loss of contracts or the imposition of contractual damages, civil fines or criminal penalties, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the change in the Administration and any government policy changes it may institute, which may be substantial, could increase regulatory uncertainty. The adoption or modification of laws or regulations relating to video programming, satellite services, the Internet or other areas of our business could limit or otherwise adversely affect the manner in which we currently conduct our business, including our Sling TV services. In addition, the manner in which regulations or legislation in these areas may be interpreted and enforced cannot be precisely determined, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. See regulatory disclosures under the caption “Item 1. Business Government Regulations” of DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for additional information.

Our DISH TV services depend on FCC licenses that can expire or be revoked or modified and applications for FCC licenses that may not be granted.

If the FCC were to cancel, revoke, suspend, restrict, significantly condition, or fail to renew any of our licenses or authorizations, or fail to grant our applications for FCC licenses that we may file from time to time, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Specifically, loss of a frequency authorization would reduce the amount of spectrum available to us, potentially reducing the amount of DISH TV services available to our DISH TV subscribers. The materiality of such a loss of authorizations would vary based upon, among other things, the location of the frequency used or the availability of replacement spectrum. In addition, Congress often considers and enacts legislation that affects us and FCC proceedings to implement the Communications Act and enforce its regulations are ongoing. We cannot predict the outcomes of these legislative or regulatory proceedings or their effect on our business.

We are subject to digital HD “carry-one, carry-all” requirements that cause capacity constraints.

To provide any full-power local broadcast signal in any market, we are required to retransmit all qualifying broadcast signals in that market (“carry-one, carry-all”), including the carriage of full-power broadcasters’ HD signals in markets in which we elect to provide local channels in HD. The carriage of additional HD signals on our DISH TV services could cause us to experience significant capacity constraints and prevent us from carrying additional popular national channels and/or carrying those national channels in HD.

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Our business, investor confidence in our financial results and DISH Network’s stock price may be adversely affected if our internal controls are not effective.

We periodically evaluate and test our internal control over financial reporting to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2019. If in the future we are unable to report that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, investors, customers and business partners could lose confidence in the accuracy of our financial reports, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, investor confidence in our financial results may weaken, and DISH Network’s stock price may suffer.

We may face other risks described from time to time in periodic and current reports we file with the SEC.

Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None

Item 2. PROPERTIES

The following table sets forth certain information concerning our principal properties.

Leased From

Description/Use/Location

    

Owned

    

EchoStar

DISH

    

Other
Third
Party

 

Corporate headquarters, Englewood, Colorado (1)

X

Customer call center and general offices, Roseland, New Jersey

X

Customer call center, Bluefield, West Virginia

X

Customer call center, Christiansburg, Virginia

X

Customer call center, Harlingen, Texas

X

Customer call center, Hilliard, Ohio

X

Customer call center, Littleton, Colorado (2)

X

Customer call center, Phoenix, Arizona

X

Customer call center, Thornton, Colorado

X

Customer call center, Tulsa, Oklahoma

X

Customer call center, warehouse, service, and remanufacturing center, El Paso, Texas

X

Data Center, Cheyenne, Wyoming (2)

X

Digital broadcast operations center, Cheyenne, Wyoming (3)

X

Digital broadcast operations center, Gilbert, Arizona (3)

X

Engineering offices and service center, Englewood, Colorado (3)

X

Engineering office, American Fork, Utah (3)

X

Engineering office, Bangalore, India (3)

X

Engineering office, Foster City, California (3)

X

Engineering office, Kharkov, Ukraine (3)

X

Engineering office, Superior, Colorado (3)

X

IT development center, Denver, Colorado

X

Micro digital broadcast operations center, Lockhart, Texas (3)

X

Regional digital broadcast operations center, Monee, Illinois (3)

X

Regional digital broadcast operations center, New Braunfels, Texas (3)

X

Regional digital broadcast operations center, Quicksburg, Virginia (3)

X

Regional digital broadcast operations center, Spokane, Washington (3)

X

Service and remanufacturing center, Spartanburg, South Carolina

X

Warehouse and distribution center, Denver, Colorado

X

Warehouse and distribution center, Atlanta, Georgia

X

Warehouse, Denver, Colorado

X

(1)See Note 17 in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our Related Party Transactions with EchoStar.

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(2)These properties were transferred to DISH Network in connection with the completion of the Master Transaction Agreement. See Note 17 in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our Related Party Transactions with DISH Network.
(3)These properties were transferred to us in connection with the completion of the Share Exchange.

In addition to the principal properties listed above, we operate numerous facilities for, among other things, our in-home service operations strategically located in regions throughout the United States. Furthermore, we own or lease capacity on 11 satellites, which are a major component of our DISH TV services. See further information under Note 6 in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

See Note 12 “Commitments and Contingencies – Contingencies – Litigation” in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information regarding certain legal proceedings in which we are involved.

Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information. As of February 24, 2020, all 1,015 issued and outstanding shares of our common stock were held by DOC. There is currently no established trading market for our common stock.

Item 7. MANAGEMENT’S NARRATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following narrative analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes to our financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This management’s narrative analysis is intended to help provide an understanding of our financial condition, changes in financial condition and results of our operations and contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements are not historical facts, but rather are based on current expectations, estimates, assumptions and projections about our industry, business and future financial results. Our actual results could differ materially from the results contemplated by these forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including those discussed under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and we expressly disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.

Overview

Our business strategy is to be the best provider of video services in the United States by providing products with the best technology, outstanding customer service, and great value. We promote our Pay-TV services as providing our subscribers with a better “price-to-value” relationship than those available from other subscription television service providers. In connection with the growth in OTT industry, we promote our Sling TV services primarily to consumers who do not subscribe to traditional satellite and cable pay-TV services.

As the pay-TV industry is mature, our DISH TV strategy has included an emphasis on acquiring and retaining higher quality subscribers, including subscribers in markets underserved by pay-TV services, even if it means that we will acquire and retain fewer overall subscribers. We evaluate the quality of subscribers based upon a number of factors, including, among others, profitability. Our DISH TV subscriber base has been declining due to, among other things, this strategy. There can be no assurance that our DISH TV subscriber base will not continue to decline and that the pace of such decline will not accelerate.

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Our revenue and profit is primarily derived from Pay-TV programming services that we provide to our subscribers. We also generate revenue from equipment rental fees and other hardware related fees, including DVRs and fees from subscribers with multiple receivers; advertising services; fees earned from our Smart Home service operations; warranty services; and sales of digital receivers and related equipment to third-party pay-TV providers. Our subscriber-related revenue has been declining due to, among other things, the continuing decline in our DISH TV subscriber base. Our most significant expenses are subscriber-related expenses, which are primarily related to programming.

Financial Highlights

2019 Consolidated Results of Operations and Key Operating Metrics

Revenue of $12.623 billion
Net income attributable to DISH DBS of $828 million
Loss of approximately 336,000 net Pay-TV subscribers
Loss of approximately 511,000 net DISH TV subscribers
Addition of approximately 175,000 net Sling TV subscribers
Pay-TV ARPU of $85.92
Gross new DISH TV subscriber activations of approximately 1.348 million
DISH TV churn rate of 1.62%
DISH TV SAC of $822

Consolidated Financial Condition as of December 31, 2019

Cash, cash equivalents and current marketable investment securities of $17 million
Total assets of $4.387 billion
Total long-term debt and finance lease obligations of $10.822 billion

We currently operate one business segment.

Pay-TV

We are the nation’s fourth largest pay-TV provider and offer Pay-TV services under the DISH brand, and the Sling brand. As of December 31, 2019, we had 11.986 million Pay-TV subscribers in the United States, including 9.394 million DISH TV subscribers and 2.592 million Sling TV subscribers.

Competition has intensified in recent years as the pay-TV industry has matured. To differentiate our DISH TV services from our competitors, we offer the Hopper whole-home DVR and have continued to add functionality and simplicity for a more intuitive user experience. Our Hopper and Joey® whole-home DVR promotes a suite of integrated features and functionality designed to maximize the convenience and ease of watching TV anytime and anywhere. It also has several innovative features that a consumer can use, at his or her option, to watch and record television programming, through their televisions, streaming media devices, tablets, phones and computers. The Hopper 3, among other things, features 16 tuners, delivers an enhanced 4K Ultra HD experience, and supports up to seven TVs simultaneously.

We market our Sling TV services primarily to consumers who do not subscribe to traditional satellite and cable pay-TV services. Our Sling TV services require an Internet connection and are available on multiple streaming-capable devices including streaming media devices, TVs, tablets, computers, game consoles and phones. We offer Sling International, Sling Latino and Sling domestic video programming services. Our domestic Sling TV services have a single-stream service branded Sling Orange and a multi-stream service branded Sling Blue, which includes, among other things, the ability to stream on up to three devices simultaneously.

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We face competition from providers of video content distributed over the Internet including services with live-linear television programming, as well as single programmer offerings and offerings of large libraries of on-demand content, including in certain cases original content. These providers include, among others, Netflix, Hulu, Apple, Amazon, Alphabet, Disney, Verizon, AT&T, ViacomCBS, STARZ, Fubo and Philo.  Many of these companies have larger customer bases, stronger brand recognition and greater financial, marketing and other resources than we do. In addition, traditional providers of video entertainment, including broadcasters, cable channels and MVPDs, are increasing their Internet-based video offerings. Some of these services charge nominal or no fees for access to their content, which could adversely affect demand for our Pay-TV services. Moreover, new technologies have been, and will likely continue to be, developed that further increase the number of competitors we face with respect to video services, including competition from piracy-based video offerings. This competition, among other things, has caused the rate of growth in subscribers to our Sling TV services to decrease. In June 2018, we launched additional Sling TV services which include offering consumers a la carte channel subscriptions, access to pay-per-view events and movies, and access to free content. There can be no assurance that these additional services or other offers will positively affect our results of operations or our net Sling TV subscribers.

Recent Developments

Mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures and alliances among cable television providers, telecommunications companies, programming providers and others may result in, among other things, greater scale and financial leverage and increase the availability of offerings from providers capable of bundling video, broadband and/or wireless services in competition with our services, and may exacerbate the risks described in our public filings. In October 2016, AT&T announced its acquisition of Time Warner, which was completed in June 2018. In December 2017, Walt Disney Company announced its acquisition of certain assets of Twenty-First Century Fox, Inc., which was completed in March 2019.  These transactions may affect us adversely by, among other things, making it more difficult for us to obtain access to certain programming networks on nondiscriminatory and fair terms, or at all. For example, in connection with AT&T’s acquisition of Time Warner, Turner sent all of its distributors written, irrevocable offers to submit disputes over the price and other terms of Turner programming to binding arbitration and to guarantee continued access to that programming while any arbitration is pending. However, in October 2018, AT&T removed its HBO and Cinemax channels, which are not part of Turner, from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup, as we and AT&T have been unable to negotiate the terms and conditions of a new programming carriage contract.

Trends

Competition

Competition has intensified in recent years as the pay-TV industry has matured. With respect to our DISH TV services, we and our competitors increasingly must seek to attract a greater proportion of new subscribers from each other’s existing subscriber bases rather than from first-time purchasers of pay-TV services. We incur significant costs to retain our existing DISH TV subscribers, mostly as a result of upgrading their equipment to next generation receivers, primarily including our Hopper receivers, and by providing retention credits. Our DISH TV subscriber retention costs may vary significantly from period to period.

Many of our competitors have been especially aggressive by offering discounted programming and services for both new and existing subscribers, including bundled offers combining broadband, video and/or wireless services and other promotional offers. Certain competitors have been able to subsidize the price of video services with the price of broadband and/or wireless services.

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Our Pay-TV services also face increased competition from programmers and other companies who distribute video directly to consumers over the Internet. Our Sling TV services face increased competition from content providers and other companies, as well as traditional satellite television providers, cable companies and large telecommunications companies, that are increasing their Internet-based video offerings. We also face competition from providers of video content distributed over the Internet including services with live linear television programming, as well as single programmer offerings and offerings of large libraries of on-demand content, including in certain cases original content. These providers include, among others, Netflix, Hulu, Apple, Amazon, Alphabet, Disney, Verizon, AT&T, ViacomCBS, STARZ, Fubo and Philo.  Furthermore, our DISH TV services face increased competition as programming offered over the Internet has become more prevalent and consumers are spending an increasing amount of time accessing video content via the Internet on their mobile devices. Significant changes in consumer behavior with regard to the means by which consumers obtain video entertainment and information in response to digital media competition could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition or otherwise disrupt our business. In particular, consumers have shown increased interest in viewing certain video programming in any place, at any time and/or on any broadband-connected device they choose. Online content providers may cause our subscribers to disconnect our DISH TV services (“cord cutting”), downgrade to smaller, less expensive programming packages (“cord shaving”) or elect to purchase through these online content providers a certain portion of the services that they would have historically purchased from us, such as pay per view movies, resulting in less revenue to us.

We implement new marketing promotions from time to time that are intended to increase our Pay-TV subscriber activations. For our DISH TV services, we have launched various marketing promotions offering certain DISH TV programming packages without a price increase for a commitment period. We also launched our Flex Pack skinny bundle with a core package of programming consisting of more than 50 channels and the choice of one of ten themed add-on channel packs, which include, among others, local broadcast networks and kids and general entertainment programming. Subscribers can also add or remove additional channel packs to best suit their entertainment needs. In addition, certain streaming apps, including, among others, Netflix, Amazon Prime Video and YouTube, have been integrated into select Hopper receiver systems. During 2017, we launched “Tuned In To You” and during 2019 we launched the “Tuned In To You 2.0” campaign, which further amplifies our commitment to customer satisfaction. While we plan to implement these and other new marketing efforts for our DISH TV services, there can be no assurance that we will ultimately be successful in increasing our gross new DISH TV subscriber activations.

Additionally, in response to our efforts, we may face increased competitive pressures, including aggressive marketing and retention efforts, bundled discount offers combining broadband, video and/or wireless services and other discounted promotional offers. For our Sling TV services, we offer a personalized TV experience with a customized channel line-up and two of the lowest priced multichannel live-linear online streaming services in the industry, our Sling Orange service and our Sling Blue service. During 2018, we launched our “We are Slingers” campaign and during 2019, we launched our “Sling In” campaign. While we plan to implement this and other new marketing efforts for our Sling TV services, there can be no assurance that we will ultimately be successful in increasing our net Sling TV subscriber activations.

Our DISH TV subscriber base has been declining due to, among other things, the factors described above. There can be no assurance that our DISH TV subscriber base will not continue to decline and that the pace of such decline will not accelerate. As our DISH TV subscriber base continues to decline, it could have a material adverse long-term effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.

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Programming

Our ability to compete successfully will depend, among other things, on our ability to continue to obtain desirable programming and deliver it to our subscribers at competitive prices. Programming costs represent a large percentage of our “Subscriber-related expenses” and the largest component of our total expense. We expect these costs to continue to increase due to contractual price increases and the renewal of long-term programming contracts on less favorable pricing terms and certain programming costs are rising at a much faster rate than wages or inflation. In particular, the rates we are charged for retransmitting local broadcast channels have been increasing substantially and may exceed our ability to increase our prices to our customers. Going forward, our margins may face pressure if we are unable to renew our long-term programming contracts on acceptable pricing and other economic terms or if we are unable to pass these increased programming costs on to our customers.

Increases in programming costs have caused us to increase the rates that we charge to our subscribers, which could in turn cause our existing Pay-TV subscribers to disconnect our service or cause potential new Pay-TV subscribers to choose not to subscribe to our service. Additionally, even if our subscribers do not disconnect our services, they may purchase through new and existing online content providers a certain portion of the services that they would have historically purchased from us, such as pay-per-view movies, resulting in less revenue to us.

Furthermore, our net Pay-TV subscriber additions, gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, and DISH TV churn rate may be negatively impacted if we are unable to renew our long-term programming carriage contracts before they expire. In the past, our net Pay-TV subscriber additions, gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, and DISH TV churn rate have been negatively impacted as a result of programming interruptions and threatened programming interruptions in connection with the scheduled expiration of programming carriage contracts with content providers. For example, in June 2018 and November 2018, Univision Communications Inc. (“Univision”) removed certain of its channels from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup. On March 26, 2019, we and Univision signed a new programming carriage contract which restored certain of these Univision channels to our DISH TV programming lineup. In October 2018, AT&T removed its HBO and Cinemax channels from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup, as we and AT&T have been unable to negotiate the terms and conditions of a new programming carriage contract. AT&T offers its programming, including its HBO and Cinemax channels, directly to consumers over the Internet and provides HBO for free to its subscribers under certain offers. In July 2019, Fox RSNs also removed certain of its channels from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup. In August 2019, Sinclair Broadcast Group acquired the Fox RSNs. We experienced a higher DISH TV churn rate, higher net Pay-TV subscriber losses and lower gross new DISH TV subscriber activations during 2018 and 2019, when Univision, AT&T and Fox RSNs removed certain of their channels from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup. There can be no assurance that channel removals, such as the removal of the channels discussed above or others, will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition or otherwise disrupt our business. 

We cannot predict with any certainty the impact to our net Pay-TV subscriber additions, gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, and DISH TV churn rate resulting from additional programming interruptions or threatened programming interruptions that may occur in the future. As a result, we may at times suffer from periods of lower net Pay-TV subscriber additions or higher net Pay-TV subscriber losses.

Operations and Customer Service

While competitive factors have impacted the entire pay-TV industry, our relative performance has also been driven by issues specific to us. In the past, our subscriber growth has been adversely affected by signal theft and other forms of fraud and by our operational inefficiencies. For our DISH TV services, in order to combat signal theft and improve the security of our broadcast system, we use microchips embedded in credit card sized access cards, called “smart cards,” or security chips in our DBS receiver systems to control access to authorized programming content (“Security Access Devices”). We expect that future replacements of these devices may be necessary to keep our system secure. To combat other forms of fraud, among other things, we monitor our independent third-party distributors’ and independent third-party retailers’ adherence to our business rules. Furthermore, for our Sling TV services, we encrypt programming content and use digital rights management software to, among other things, prevent unauthorized access to our programming content.

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While we have made improvements in responding to and dealing with customer service issues, we continue to focus on the prevention of these issues, which is critical to our business, financial condition and results of operations. To improve our operational performance, we continue to make investments in staffing, training, information systems, and other initiatives, primarily in our call center and in-home service operations. These investments are intended to help combat inefficiencies introduced by the increasing complexity of our business, improve customer satisfaction, reduce churn, increase productivity, and allow us to scale better over the long run. We cannot be certain, however, that our spending will ultimately be successful in improving our operational performance.

Changes in our Technology

We have been deploying DBS receivers for our DISH TV services that utilize 8PSK modulation technology with MPEG-4 compression technology for several years. These technologies, when fully deployed, will allow improved broadcast efficiency, and therefore allow increased programming capacity. Many of our customers today, however, do not have DBS receivers that use MPEG-4 compression technology. In addition, given that all of our HD content is broadcast in MPEG-4, any growth in HD penetration will naturally accelerate our transition to these newer technologies and may increase our retention costs. All new DBS receivers have MPEG-4 compression with 8PSK modulation technology.

In addition, from time to time, we change equipment for certain subscribers to make more efficient use of transponder capacity in support of HD and other initiatives. We believe that the benefit from the increase in available transponder capacity outweighs the short-term cost of these equipment changes.

Operational Liquidity

We make general investments in property such as satellites, set-top boxes, information technology and facilities that support our overall Pay-TV business. Moreover, since we are a subscriber-based company, we also make subscriber-specific investments to acquire new subscribers and retain existing subscribers. While the general investments may be deferred without impacting the business in the short-term, the subscriber-specific investments are less discretionary. Our overall objective is to generate sufficient cash flow over the life of each subscriber to provide an adequate return against the upfront investment. Once the upfront investment has been made for each subscriber, the subsequent cash flow is generally positive, but there can be no assurances that over time we will recoup or earn a return on the upfront investment.

There are a number of factors that impact our future cash flow compared to the cash flow we generate at a given point in time. The first factor is our DISH TV churn rate and how successful we are at retaining our current Pay-TV subscribers. To the extent we lose Pay-TV subscribers from our existing base, the positive cash flow from that base is correspondingly reduced. The second factor is how successful we are at maintaining our subscriber-related margins. To the extent our “Subscriber-related expenses” grow faster than our “Subscriber-related revenue,” the amount of cash flow that is generated per existing subscriber is reduced. Our subscriber-related margins have been reduced by, among other things, a shift to lower priced Pay-TV programming packages and higher programming costs. The third factor is the rate at which we acquire new subscribers. The faster we acquire new subscribers, the more our positive ongoing cash flow from existing subscribers is offset by the negative upfront cash flow associated with acquiring new subscribers. Conversely, the slower we acquire subscribers, the more our operating cash flow is enhanced in that period. Finally, our future cash flow is impacted by the rate at which we make general investments, incur litigation expense, and any cash flow from financing activities. Declines in our Pay-TV subscriber base and subscriber-related margins continue to negatively impact our cash flow, and there can be no assurances that these declines will not continue.

Availability of Credit and Effect on Liquidity

The ability to raise capital has generally existed for us despite economic weakness and uncertainty. While modest fluctuations in the cost of capital will not likely impact our current operational plans, significant fluctuations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Debt Maturity

Our 4 5/8% Senior Notes with an aggregate principal balance of $900 million were redeemed on July 17, 2017.

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During 2017 and 2018, we repurchased $174 million and $57 million, respectively, of our 4 1/4% Senior Notes due 2018 in open market trades. The remaining balance of $969 million were redeemed on April 2, 2018.

During the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2019, we repurchased $83 million and $22 million, respectively, of our 7 7/8% Senior Notes due 2019 in open market trades. The remaining balance of $1.295 billion was redeemed on September 3, 2019.

Our 5 1/8% Senior Notes with an aggregate principal balance of $1.1 billion mature on May 1, 2020. We will either fund this obligation from cash and marketable investment securities balances at that time and/or advances from our parent, DISH Network or, depending on market conditions, we may refinance this obligation, in whole or in part.

Future Liquidity

Wireless

Since 2008, DISH Network has directly invested over $11 billion to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and related assets and made over $10 billion in non-controlling investments in certain entities, for a total of over $21 billion, as described further below.

DISH Network Spectrum. DISH Network has directly invested over $11 billion to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and related assets. These wireless spectrum licenses are subject to certain interim and final build-out requirements, as well as certain renewal requirements. In March 2017, DISH Network notified the FCC that it planned to deploy a narrowband IoT network on certain of these wireless licenses, which was to be the First Phase. DISH Network expected to complete the First Phase by March 2020, with subsequent phases to be completed thereafter. DISH Network has entered into vendor contracts with multiple parties for, among other things, base stations, chipsets, modules, tower leases, the core network, RF design, and deployment services for the First Phase.  Among other things, initial RF design in connection with the First Phase was complete, DISH Network had secured certain tower sites, and they were in the process of identifying and securing additional tower sites.  The core network had been installed and commissioned. DISH Network installed the first base stations on sites in 2018 and were in the process of deploying the remaining base stations.  During October 2019, DISH Network paused work on its narrowband IoT deployment due to its March 2020 build-out deadlines being tolled as discussed above.  In addition, DISH Network has issued RFI/Ps to various vendors in the wireless industry as it moves forward with its 5G Network DeploymentDISH Network currently expects expenditures for its wireless projects to be between $250 million and $500 million during 2020, excluding capitalized interest. DISH Network currently expects expenditures for its 5G Network Deployment to be approximately $10 billion, excluding capitalized interest. DISH Network will need to make significant additional investments or partner with others to, among other things, commercialize, build-out, and integrate these licenses and related assets, and any additional acquired licenses and related assets; and comply with regulations applicable to such licenses. Depending on the nature and scope of such commercialization, build-out, integration efforts, and regulatory compliance, any such investments or partnerships could vary significantly. In addition, as DISH Network considers its options for the commercialization of its wireless spectrum, it will incur significant additional expenses and will have to make significant investments related to, among other things, research and development, wireless testing and wireless network infrastructure. DISH Network may also determine that additional wireless spectrum licenses may be required to commercialize its wireless business and to compete with other wireless service providers.

Asset Purchase Agreement. On July 26, 2019, DISH Network entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “APA”) with T-Mobile US, Inc. (“TMUS”) and Sprint Corporation (“Sprint” and together with TMUS, the “Sellers” and after the consummation of the Sprint-TMUS merger, sometimes referred to as “NTM”). 

Pursuant to the APA, after the consummation of the Sprint-TMUS merger and at the closing of the transaction, NTM will sell to DISH Network and DISH Network will acquire from NTM certain assets and liabilities associated with Sprint’s Boost Mobile, Virgin Mobile and Sprint-branded prepaid mobile services businesses (the “Prepaid Business”) for an aggregate purchase price of $1.4 billion as adjusted for specific categories of net working capital on the Closing Date (the “Prepaid Business Sale”). 

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At the closing of the Prepaid Business Sale, DISH Network and NTM will enter into a transition services agreement under which DISH Network will receive certain transitional services (the “TSA”), a master network services agreement for the provision of network services by NTM to DISH Network (the “MNSA”), an option agreement entitling DISH Network to acquire certain decommissioned cell sites and retail stores of NTM (the “Option Agreement”) and an agreement under which DISH Network would purchase all of Sprint’s 800 MHz spectrum licenses, totaling approximately 13.5 MHz of nationwide wireless spectrum for an additional approximately $3.59 billion (the “Spectrum Purchase Agreement” and together with the APA, the TSA, the MNSA and the Option Agreement, the “Transaction Agreements”).  See Note 15 “Commitments and Contingencies – Commitments – Sprint Asset Acquisition” of DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for further information on the Transaction Agreements.

Beginning on November 5, 2019, and while the approval of the Sprint-TMUS merger is pending, the March 7, 2020 build-out deadline for both the AWS-4 and Lower 700 MHz E Block spectrum bands is tolled; however, if the Sprint-TMUS merger is not consummated, the original deadlines would be reinstated with extensions equal to the length of time the deadline was tolled. During October 2019, DISH Network paused work on its narrowband IoT deployment due to its March 2020 build-out deadlines being tolled. DISH Network has issued requests for RFI/Ps to various vendors in the wireless industry as it moves forward with its 5G Network Deployment. 

In connection with the development of DISH Network’s wireless business, including, without limitation, the efforts described above, we have made cash distributions to partially finance these efforts to date and may make additional cash distributions to finance, in whole or in part, DISH Network’s future efforts. There can be no assurance that DISH Network will be able to develop and implement a business model that will realize a return on these wireless spectrum licenses or that DISH Network will be able to profitably deploy the assets represented by these wireless spectrum licenses.

DISH Network Non-Controlling Investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities Related to AWS-3 Wireless Spectrum Licenses. During 2015, through its wholly-owned subsidiaries American II and American III, DISH Network initially made over $10 billion in certain non-controlling investments in Northstar Spectrum, the parent company of Northstar Wireless, and in SNR HoldCo, the parent company of SNR Wireless, respectively. On October 27, 2015, the FCC granted certain AWS-3 Licenses to Northstar Wireless and to SNR Wireless, respectively. The Northstar Entities and/or the SNR Entities may need to raise significant additional capital in the future, which may be obtained from third party sources or from DISH Network, so that the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities may commercialize, build-out and integrate these AWS-3 Licenses, comply with regulations applicable to such AWS-3 Licenses, and make any potential payments related to the re-auction of AWS-3 licenses retained by the FCC. Depending upon the nature and scope of such commercialization, build-out, integration efforts, regulatory compliance, and potential re-auction payments, any such loans, equity contributions or partnerships could vary significantly. For further information regarding the potential re-auction of AWS-3 licenses retained by the FCC, see Note 15 “Commitments and Contingencies – Commitments – DISH Network Non-Controlling Investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities Related to AWS-3 Wireless Spectrum Licenses” in the Notes to DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.

In connection with certain funding obligations related to the investments by American II and American III discussed above, in February 2015, we paid a dividend of $8.250 billion to DOC for, among other things, general corporate purposes, which included such funding obligations, and to fund other DISH Network cash needs. We may make additional cash distributions to finance, in whole or in part, loans that DISH Network may make to the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities in the future related to DISH Network’s non-controlling investments in these entities. There can be no assurance that DISH Network will be able to obtain a profitable return on its non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities.

We may need to raise significant additional capital in the future, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all, to among other things, make additional cash distributions to DISH Network, continue investing in our business and to pursue acquisitions and other strategic transactions.

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See “Item 1A. Risk Factors – Acquisition and Capital Structure Risks – We have made substantial investments to acquire certain wireless spectrum licenses and other related assets. In addition, we have made substantial non-controlling investments in the Northstar Entities and the SNR Entities related to AWS-3 wireless spectrum licenses” in DISH Network’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 for further information.

Covenants and Restrictions Related to our Senior Notes

The indentures related to our outstanding senior notes contain restrictive covenants that, among other things, impose limitations on our ability to: (i) incur additional indebtedness; (ii) enter into sale and leaseback transactions; (iii) pay dividends or make distributions on our capital stock or repurchase our capital stock; (iv) make certain investments; (v) create liens; (vi) enter into certain transactions with affiliates; (vii) merge or consolidate with another company; and (viii) transfer or sell assets. Should we fail to comply with these covenants, all or a portion of the debt under the senior notes could become immediately payable. The senior notes also provide that the debt may be required to be prepaid if certain change-in-control events occur. As of the date of filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we were in compliance with the covenants and restrictions related to our senior notes.

New Accounting Pronouncements

Financial Instruments – Credit Losses. On June 16, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13 Financial Instruments – Credit Losses, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016-13”), which changes the way entities measure credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net earnings. This standard will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We currently expect that the adoption of ASU 2016-13 will have an immaterial impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures.

Fair Value Measurement.  On August 28, 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework – Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (“ASU 2018-13”), which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements by adding, modifying or removing certain disclosures.  This standard will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years.  Early adoption is permitted.  Certain disclosures in ASU 2018-13 are required to be applied on a retrospective basis and others on a prospective basis.  We currently expect that the adoption of ASU 2018-13 will have an immaterial impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures.

EXPLANATION OF KEY METRICS AND OTHER ITEMS

Subscriber-related revenue. “Subscriber-related revenue” consists principally of revenue from basic, local, premium movie, pay-per-view, Latino and international subscriptions; equipment rental fees and other hardware related fees, including DVRs and fees from subscribers with multiple receivers; advertising services; fees earned from our in-home service operations; warranty services; and other subscriber revenue. Certain of the amounts included in “Subscriber-related revenue” are not recurring on a monthly basis.

Equipment sales and other revenue. “Equipment sales and other revenue” principally includes the non-subsidized sales of DBS accessories to independent third-party retailers and other independent third-party distributors of our equipment, sales of digital receivers and related components to third-party pay-TV providers, revenue from OnTech Smart Services and revenue from services and other agreements with EchoStar.

Subscriber-related expenses. “Subscriber-related expenses” principally include programming expenses, which represent a substantial majority of these expenses. “Subscriber-related expenses” also include costs for Pay-TV services incurred in connection with our subscriber retention, in-home service and call center operations, billing costs, refurbishment and repair costs related to DBS receiver systems and other variable subscriber expenses.

Satellite and transmission expenses. “Satellite and transmission expenses” includes the cost of digital broadcast operations, the cost of leasing satellite capacity, executory costs associated with finance leases, the cost of telemetry, tracking and control, and other related services. In addition, “Satellite and transmission expenses” includes costs associated with our Sling TV services including, among other things, streaming delivery technology and infrastructure.

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Cost of sales - equipment and other. “Cost of sales - equipment and other” primarily includes the cost of non-subsidized sales of DBS accessories to independent third-party retailers and other independent third-party distributors of our equipment, costs associated with sales of digital receivers and related components to third-party pay-TV providers, costs associated with OnTech Smart Services and costs related to services and other agreements with EchoStar.

Subscriber acquisition costs. While we primarily lease DBS receiver systems, we also subsidize certain costs to attract new subscribers. Our “Subscriber acquisition costs” include the cost of subsidized sales of DBS receiver systems to independent third-party retailers and other independent third-party distributors of our equipment, the cost of subsidized sales of DBS receiver systems directly by us to subscribers, including net costs related to our promotional incentives, costs related to our direct sales efforts and costs related to installation and acquisition advertising. Our “Subscriber acquisition costs” also includes costs associated with acquiring Sling TV subscribers including, among other things, costs related to acquisition advertising and our direct sales efforts and commissions. Subsequent to the adoption of ASU 2014-09 on January 1, 2018, we capitalize payments made under certain sales incentive programs, including those with our independent third-party retailers and other independent third-party distributors, which were previously expensed as “Subscriber acquisition costs.”  These amounts are now initially capitalized in “Other current assets” and “Other noncurrent assets, net” on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, and then amortized in “Other subscriber acquisition costs” on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).  See Note 2 in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.

DISH TV SAC. Subscriber acquisition cost measures are commonly used by those evaluating traditional companies in the pay-TV industry. We are not aware of any uniform standards for calculating the “average subscriber acquisition costs per new DISH TV subscriber activation,” or DISH TV SAC, and we believe presentations of pay-TV SAC may not be calculated consistently by different companies in the same or similar businesses. Our DISH TV SAC is calculated as “Subscriber acquisition costs,” excluding “Subscriber acquisition costs” associated with our Sling TV services, plus capitalized payments made under certain sales incentive programs, excluding amortization related to these payments, plus the value of equipment capitalized under our lease program for new DISH TV subscribers, divided by gross new DISH TV subscriber activations. We include all the costs of acquiring DISH TV subscribers (e.g., subsidized and capitalized equipment) as we believe it is a more comprehensive measure of how much we are spending to acquire subscribers. We also include all new DISH TV subscribers in our calculation, including DISH TV subscribers added with little or no subscriber acquisition costs.

General and administrative expenses. “General and administrative expenses” consists primarily of employee-related costs associated with administrative services such as legal, information systems, and accounting and finance. It also includes outside professional fees (e.g., legal, information systems and accounting services) and other items associated with facilities and administration.

Litigation expense. “Litigation expense” primarily consists of certain significant legal settlements, judgments and/or accruals.

Interest expense, net of amounts capitalized. “Interest expense, net of amounts capitalized” primarily includes interest expense (net of capitalized interest), prepayment premiums and amortization of debt issuance costs associated with our senior debt, and interest expense associated with our finance lease obligations.

Other, net. The main components of “Other, net” are gains and losses realized on the sale of investments, impairment of marketable and non-marketable investment securities, unrealized gains and losses from changes in fair value of certain marketable investment securities and equity in earnings and losses of our affiliates.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”). EBITDA is defined as “Net income (loss) attributable to DISH DBS” plus “Interest expense, net of amounts capitalized” net of “Interest income,” “Income tax (provision) benefit, net” and “Depreciation and amortization.” This “non-GAAP measure” is reconciled to “Net income (loss) attributable to DISH DBS” in our discussion of “Results of Operations” below.

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DISH TV subscribers. We include customers obtained through direct sales, independent third-party retailers and other independent third-party distribution relationships in our DISH TV subscriber count. We also provide DISH TV services to hotels, motels and other commercial accounts. For certain of these commercial accounts, we divide our total revenue for these commercial accounts by $34.99 and include the resulting number, which is substantially smaller than the actual number of commercial units served, in our DISH TV subscriber count.

Sling TV subscribers. We include customers obtained through direct sales and third-party marketing agreements in our Sling TV subscriber count. Sling TV subscribers are recorded net of disconnects. Sling TV customers receiving service for no charge, under certain new subscriber promotions, are excluded from our Sling TV subscriber count. For customers who subscribe to multiple Sling TV packages, including, among others, Sling TV Blue, Sling TV Orange, Sling Latino and Sling International, each customer is only counted as one Sling TV subscriber.

Pay-TV subscribers. Our Pay-TV subscriber count includes all DISH TV and Sling TV subscribers discussed above. For customers who subscribe to both our DISH TV services and our Sling TV services, each subscription is counted as a separate Pay-TV subscriber.

Pay-TV average monthly revenue per subscriber (“Pay-TV ARPU”). We are not aware of any uniform standards for calculating ARPU and believe presentations of ARPU may not be calculated consistently by other companies in the same or similar businesses. We calculate Pay-TV average monthly revenue per Pay-TV subscriber, or Pay-TV ARPU, by dividing average monthly “Subscriber-related revenue” for the period by our average number of Pay-TV subscribers for the period. The average number of Pay-TV subscribers is calculated for the period by adding the average number of Pay-TV subscribers for each month and dividing by the number of months in the period. The average number of Pay-TV subscribers for each month is calculated by adding the beginning and ending Pay-TV subscribers for the month and dividing by two. Sling TV subscribers on average purchase lower priced programming services than DISH TV subscribers, and therefore, as Sling TV subscribers increase, it has had a negative impact on Pay-TV ARPU.

DISH TV average monthly subscriber churn rate (“DISH TV churn rate”). We are not aware of any uniform standards for calculating subscriber churn rate and believe presentations of subscriber churn rates may not be calculated consistently by different companies in the same or similar businesses. We calculate DISH TV churn rate for any period by dividing the number of DISH TV subscribers who terminated service during the period by the average number of DISH TV subscribers for the same period, and further dividing by the number of months in the period. The average number of DISH TV subscribers is calculated for the period by adding the average number of DISH TV subscribers for each month and dividing by the number of months in the period. The average number of DISH TV subscribers for each month is calculated by adding the beginning and ending DISH TV subscribers for the month and dividing by two.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Year Ended December 31, 2019 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2018.

For the Years Ended December 31,

Variance

Statements of Operations Data

 

2019

    

2018

    

Amount

    

%

(In thousands)

Revenue:

Subscriber-related revenue

$

12,436,637

$

13,197,994

$

(761,357)

(5.8)

Equipment sales and other revenue

186,256

164,145

22,111

13.5

Total revenue

12,622,893

13,362,139

(739,246)

(5.5)

Costs and Expenses:

Subscriber-related expenses

7,768,732

8,392,150

(623,418)

(7.4)

% of Subscriber-related revenue

62.5

%

63.6

%

Satellite and transmission expenses

555,803

637,160

(81,357)

(12.8)

% of Subscriber-related revenue

4.5

%

4.8

%

Cost of sales - equipment and other

172,700

143,671

29,029

20.2

Subscriber acquisition costs

994,523

769,307

225,216

29.3

General and administrative expenses

732,589

692,881

39,708

5.7

% of Total revenue

5.8

%

5.2

%

Depreciation and amortization

577,348

660,460

(83,112)

(12.6)

Total costs and expenses

10,801,695

11,295,629

(493,934)

(4.4)

Operating income (loss)

1,821,198

2,066,510

(245,312)

(11.9)

Other Income (Expense):

Interest income

30,041

8,923

21,118

*

Interest expense, net of amounts capitalized

(756,690)

(792,436)

35,746

4.5

Other, net

7,609

8,994

(1,385)

(15.4)

Total other income (expense)

(719,040)

(774,519)

55,479

7.2

Income (loss) before income taxes

1,102,158

1,291,991

(189,833)

(14.7)

Income tax (provision) benefit, net

(274,751)

(318,305)

43,554

13.7

Effective tax rate

24.9

%

24.6

%

Net income (loss)

827,407

973,686

(146,279)

(15.0)

Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests, net of tax

(124)

2,399

(2,523)

*

Net income (loss) attributable to DISH DBS

$

827,531

$

971,287

$

(143,756)

(14.8)

Other Data:

Pay-TV subscribers, as of period end (in millions)

11.986

12.322

(0.336)

(2.7)

DISH TV subscribers, as of period end (in millions)

9.394

9.905

(0.511)

(5.2)

Sling TV subscribers, as of period end (in millions)

2.592

2.417

0.175

7.2

Pay-TV subscriber additions (losses), net (in millions)

(0.336)

(0.920)

0.584

63.5

DISH TV subscriber additions (losses), net (in millions)

(0.511)

(1.125)

0.614

54.6

Sling TV subscriber additions (losses), net (in millions)

0.175

0.205

(0.030)

(14.6)

Pay-TV ARPU

$

85.92

$

85.46

$

0.46

0.5

DISH TV subscriber additions, gross (in millions)

1.348

1.114

0.234

21.0

DISH TV churn rate

1.62

%

1.78

%

(0.16)

%

(9.0)

DISH TV SAC

$

822

$

759

$

63

8.3

EBITDA

$

2,406,279

$

2,733,565

$

(327,286)

(12.0)

* Percentage is not meaningful.

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Pay-TV subscribers. We lost approximately 336,000 net Pay-TV subscribers during the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the loss of approximately 920,000 net Pay-TV subscribers during the same period in 2018. The decrease in net Pay-TV subscriber losses during the year ended December 31, 2019 resulted from fewer net DISH TV subscriber losses, partially offset by fewer net Sling TV subscriber additions. Our net Pay-TV subscriber losses during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were negatively impacted by Univision, AT&T and Fox RSNs’ removal of certain of their channels from our DISH TV and Sling TV programming lineup. On March 26, 2019, we and Univision signed a new programming carriage contract which restored certain Univision channels to our DISH TV programming lineup.  In August 2019, Sinclair Broadcast Group acquired the Fox RSNs.  We lost approximately 511,000 net DISH TV subscribers during the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the loss of approximately 1.125 million net DISH TV subscribers during the same period in 2018. This decrease in net DISH TV subscriber losses primarily resulted from a lower DISH TV churn rate and higher gross new DISH TV subscriber activations. We added approximately 175,000 net Sling TV subscribers during the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to the addition of approximately 205,000 net Sling TV subscribers during the same period in 2018. This decrease in net Sling TV subscriber additions is primarily related to increased competition, including competition from other OTT service providers, and to a higher number of customer disconnects on a larger Sling TV subscriber base, including the impact from Univision, AT&T and Fox RSNs’ removal of certain of their channels from our programming lineup, discussed above.

Our DISH TV churn rate for the year ended December 31, 2019 was 1.62% compared to 1.78% for the same period in 2018. This decrease primarily resulted from our emphasis on acquiring and retaining higher quality subscribers. Our DISH TV churn rate for the year ended December 31, 2019 was negatively impacted by various channel removals from our programming lineup. For example, our DISH TV churn rate for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 was negatively impacted by Univision, AT&T and Fox RSNs’ removal of certain of their channels from our programming lineup. Our DISH TV churn rate continues to be adversely impacted by external factors, such as, among other things, increased competitive pressures, including aggressive marketing, bundled discount offers combining broadband, video and/or wireless services and other discounted promotional offers, as well as cord cutting. Our DISH TV churn rate is also impacted by internal factors, such as, among other things, our ability to consistently provide outstanding customer service, price increases, programming interruptions in connection with the scheduled expiration of certain programming carriage contracts, our ability to control piracy and other forms of fraud and the level of our retention efforts.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, we activated approximately 1.348 million gross new DISH TV subscribers compared to approximately 1.114 million gross new DISH TV subscribers during the same period in 2018, an increase of 21.0%. The increase in gross new DISH TV subscribers resulted from the effectiveness of our promotions and product offers. Although our gross new DISH TV subscriber activations increased, our gross new DISH TV subscriber activations continue to be negatively impacted by stricter customer acquisition policies for our DISH TV subscribers, including an emphasis on acquiring higher quality subscribers, and by increased competitive pressures, including aggressive short term introductory pricing and bundled offers combining broadband, video and/or wireless services and other discounted promotional offers; and channel removals.

During September 2017, Hurricane Maria caused extraordinary damage in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, resulting in a widespread loss of power and infrastructure. Given the devastation and loss of power, substantially all customers in those areas were unable to receive our service as of September 30, 2017. In an effort to ensure customers would not be charged for services they were unable to receive, we proactively paused service for those customers. Accordingly, we removed approximately 145,000 subscribers, representing all of our subscribers in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, from our ending Pay-TV subscriber count as of September 30, 2017. During the fourth quarter 2017, 75,000 of these customers reactivated.  During the year ended December 31, 2018, 31,000 of these customers reactivated. We incurred certain costs in connection with the re-activation of these returning subscribers, and accordingly, these returning customers were recorded as gross new DISH TV subscriber activations with the corresponding costs recorded in “Subscriber acquisition costs” on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss) and/or in “Purchases of property and equipment” on our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.

We cannot predict with any certainty the impact to our net Pay-TV subscriber additions, gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, and DISH TV subscriber churn rate resulting from programming interruptions or threatened programming interruptions that may occur in the future. As a result, we may at times suffer from periods of lower net Pay-TV subscriber additions or higher net Pay-TV subscriber losses.

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We have not always met our own standards for performing high-quality installations, effectively resolving subscriber issues when they arise, answering subscriber calls in an acceptable timeframe, effectively communicating with our subscriber base, reducing calls driven by the complexity of our business, improving the reliability of certain systems and subscriber equipment, and aligning the interests of certain independent third-party retailers and installers to provide high-quality service. Most of these factors have affected both gross new DISH TV subscriber activations as well as DISH TV subscriber churn rate. Our future gross new DISH TV subscriber activations and our DISH TV subscriber churn rate may be negatively impacted by these factors, which could in turn adversely affect our revenue.

Subscriber-related revenue. “Subscriber-related revenue” totaled $12.437 billion for the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $761 million or 5.8% compared to the same period in 2018. The decrease in “Subscriber-related revenue” compared to the same period in 2018 was primarily related to a lower average Pay-TV subscriber base, partially offset by an increase in Pay-TV ARPU discussed below. We expect these trends in “Subscriber-related revenue” to continue.

Pay-TV ARPU. Pay-TV ARPU was $85.92 during the year ended December 31, 2019 versus $85.46 during the same period in 2018. The $0.46 or 0.5% increase in Pay-TV ARPU was primarily attributable to the DISH TV programming package price increases in the first quarter 2019 and 2018 and Sling TV programming package price increases in the third quarter 2018. The increases were partially offset by an increase in Sling TV subscribers as a percentage of our total Pay-TV subscriber base and a decrease in revenue related to premium channels. Sling TV subscribers on average purchase lower priced programming services than DISH TV subscribers, and therefore, the increase in Sling TV subscribers had a negative impact on Pay-TV ARPU.  We expect this trend to continue.

Subscriber-related expenses. “Subscriber-related expenses” totaled $7.769 billion during the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $623 million or 7.4% compared to the same period in 2018. The decrease in “Subscriber-related expenses” was primarily attributable to a lower average Pay-TV subscriber base and lower programming costs per subscriber. Programming costs per subscriber during the year ended December 31, 2019 decreased due to AT&T and Fox RSN’s removal of certain of their channels from our programming lineup. This decrease was partially offset by rate increases in certain of our programming contracts, including the renewal of certain contracts at higher rates, particularly for local broadcast channels. “Subscriber-related expenses” represented 62.5% and 63.6% of “Subscriber-related revenue” during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

In the normal course of business, we enter into contracts to purchase programming content in which our payment obligations are generally contingent on the number of Pay-TV subscribers to whom we provide the respective content. Our “Subscriber-related expenses” have and will continue to face further upward pressure from price increases and the renewal of long-term programming contracts on less favorable pricing terms. In addition, our programming expenses will increase to the extent we are successful in growing our Pay-TV subscriber base.

Satellite and transmission expenses. “Satellite and transmission expenses” totaled $556 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $81 million or 12.8% compared to the same period in 2018. This decrease resulted from the reduction of expense associated with the EchoStar VII and EchoStar XVIII satellite leases.  The EchoStar VII lease expired June 30, 2018 and in May 2019, our lease of EchoStar XVIII ended as a result of an agreement to sell our interests in the LMDS and MVDDS licenses in exchange for the EchoStar XVIII satellite.

Subscriber acquisition costs. “Subscriber acquisition costs” totaled $995 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $225 million or 29.3% compared to the same period in 2018. This change was primarily attributable to higher gross new DISH TV subscriber activations and the increase in DISH TV SAC, discussed below.

DISH TV SAC. DISH TV SAC was $822 during the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to $759 during the same period in 2018, an increase of $63 or 8.3%. This change was primarily attributable to an increase in hardware, advertising and installation costs per activation.  The increase in hardware and installation costs resulted from our emphasis on acquiring higher quality subscribers who activate with higher priced receivers, such as the Hopper 3, and a lower percentage of remanufactured receivers being activated on new subscriber accounts.  In addition, the year ended December 31, 2018 were positively impacted by the reactivation of certain subscribers in Puerto Rico related to Hurricane Maria. The expenses we incurred for these reactivations were lower on a per subscriber basis than those incurred for the remaining gross new DISH TV subscriber activations during the year ended December 31, 2019.

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During the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the amount of equipment capitalized under our lease program for new DISH TV subscribers totaled $191 million and $120 million, respectively. This increase in capital expenditures resulted from higher gross new DISH TV subscriber activations, discussed above, and our emphasis on acquiring higher quality subscribers who activate with higher priced receivers, such as the Hopper 3, and a lower percentage of remanufactured receivers being activated on new subscriber accounts.

To remain competitive, we upgrade or replace subscriber equipment periodically as technology changes, and the costs associated with these upgrades may be substantial. To the extent technological changes render a portion of our existing equipment obsolete, we would be unable to redeploy all returned equipment and consequently would realize less benefit from the DISH TV SAC reduction associated with redeployment of that returned lease equipment.

Our “Subscriber acquisition costs” and “DISH TV SAC” may materially increase in the future to the extent that we, among other things, transition to newer technologies, introduce more aggressive promotions, or provide greater equipment subsidies.

General and administrative expenses. “General and administrative expenses” totaled $733 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, a $40 million or 5.7% increase compared to the same period in 2018. This increase was primarily driven by an increase in legal fees. The year ended December 31, 2018 was positively impacted by the reimbursement of legal fees during 2018.

Depreciation and amortization. “Depreciation and amortization” expense totaled $577 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, an $83 million or 12.6% decrease compared to the same period in 2018. This change was primarily driven by a decrease in depreciation expense from equipment leased to new and existing DISH TV subscribers.

Interest expense, net of amounts capitalized. “Interest expense, net of amounts capitalized” totaled $757 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $36 million or 4.5% compared to the same period in 2018. This decrease was primarily related to a reduction in interest expense resulting from debt redemptions during 2019 and 2018.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. EBITDA was $2.406 billion during the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $327 million or 12.0% compared to the same period in 2018. The decrease in EBITDA was primarily attributable to the changes in operating income discussed above, excluding the change in “Depreciation and amortization.” The following table reconciles EBITDA to the accompanying financial statements.

For the Years Ended December 31,

 

2019

    

2018

 

(In thousands)

EBITDA

$

2,406,279

$

2,733,565

Interest, net

(726,649)

(783,513)

Income tax (provision) benefit, net

(274,751)

(318,305)

Depreciation and amortization

(577,348)

(660,460)

Net income (loss) attributable to DISH DBS

$

827,531

$

971,287

EBITDA is not a measure determined in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) and should not be considered a substitute for operating income, net income or any other measure determined in accordance with GAAP. EBITDA is used as a measurement of operating efficiency and overall financial performance and we believe it to be a helpful measure for those evaluating companies in the pay-TV industry. Conceptually, EBITDA measures the amount of income generated each period that could be used to service debt, pay taxes and fund capital expenditures. EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for measures of performance prepared in accordance with GAAP.

Income tax (provision) benefit, net. Our income tax provision was $275 million during the year ended December 31, 2019, a decrease of $44 million compared to the same period in 2018. The decrease in the provision was primarily related to a decrease in “Income (loss) before income taxes.”

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Item 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

Market Risks Associated with Financial Instruments

Our investments and debt are exposed to market risks, discussed below.

Cash, Cash Equivalents and Current Marketable Investment Securities

As of December 31, 2019, our cash, cash equivalents and current marketable investment securities had a fair value of $17 million, of which the entire amount was invested in cash. The size of this portfolio can fluctuate significantly as cash is received and used in our business.

Restricted Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Investment Securities

As of December 31, 2019, we had $61 million of restricted cash and marketable investment securities invested in: (a) cash; (b) money market funds; (c) debt instruments of the United States Government and its agencies; and/or (d) instruments with similar risk, duration and credit quality characteristics to commercial paper. Based on our December 31, 2019 investment portfolio, a hypothetical 10% increase in average interest rates would not have a material impact on the fair value of our restricted cash and marketable investment securities.

Long-Term Debt

As of December 31, 2019, we had long-term debt of $10.626 billion, excluding finance lease obligations and unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discounts, on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. We estimated the fair value of this debt to be approximately $11.097 billion using quoted market prices. The fair value of our debt is affected by fluctuations in interest rates. A hypothetical 10% decrease in assumed interest rates would increase the fair value of our debt by approximately $163 million. To the extent interest rates increase, our future costs of financing would increase at the time of any future financings. As of December 31, 2019, all of our long-term debt consisted of fixed rate indebtedness.

Derivative Financial Instruments

From time to time, we invest in speculative financial instruments, including derivatives. As of December 31, 2019, we did not hold any derivative financial instruments.

Item 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Our consolidated financial statements are included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K beginning on page F-1.

Our selected quarterly financial data for each of the quarterly periods ended March 31, June 30, September 30 and December 31 for 2019 and 2018 is included in Note 16 in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

Not applicable.

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Item 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

Disclosure controls and procedures

Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer, we evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of the end of the period covered by this report.

Changes in internal control over financial reporting

There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) during our most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Our internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles.

Our internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that:

(i)pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect our transactions and dispositions of our assets;
(ii)provide reasonable assurance that our transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of our financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and our directors; and
(iii)provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on our financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Our management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this evaluation, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2019.

Item 9B.OTHER INFORMATION

None

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Item 14.PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

Appointment of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

Appointment of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm for 2019. KPMG LLP served as our independent registered public accounting firm for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

Our Board of Directors, in its discretion, may direct the appointment of a different independent registered public accounting firm at any time during the year if the Board of Directors believes that a change would be in our best interests.

Fees Paid to KPMG LLP for 2019 and 2018

The following table presents fees for the aggregate professional audit services rendered by KPMG LLP for the audit of DISH Network’s and our annual financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and fees billed for other services rendered by KPMG LLP to DISH Network and us during those periods. We have reported the fees billed for services rendered to both DISH Network and us because the services are not rendered or billed specifically for us but for the DISH Network consolidated group as a whole.

For the Years Ended December 31,

    

2019

    

2018

 

Audit Fees (1)

$

3,632,000

$

2,960,000

Audit-Related Fees (2)

Total Audit and Audit-Related Fees

3,632,000

2,960,000

Tax Compliance Fees

231,177

326,464

Tax Consultation Fees

3,381

82,372

All Other Fees

Total Fees

$

3,866,558

$

3,368,836

(1)Consists of fees paid by DISH Network and us for the audit of DISH Network’s and our consolidated financial statements included in DISH Network’s and our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, review of DISH Network’s and o